Reasons for half day leave (9 best reasons)

In this blog post, we are going to discuss reasons for half-day leave, factors that may help or hurt your chances of getting a half-day leave, and some good and bad reasons to take a half-day leave.

What are some reasons to take a half-day leave?

Below are some common reasons that you can use to take a half-day leave:

  • Personal reasons
  • Religious events
  • Doctor’s appointment 
  • Family emergencies 
  • Work commitments
  • Parental duties
  • Death in the family or loss of a loved one
  • House emergency 
  • Personal illness or injury 

Factors that affect your chances of leaving early

Getting out of work early is normal when you have valid reasons. But certain circumstances can make it easier or harder for you to get your manager’s approval. Here’s why:

  • The culture at the workplace – Your company culture is a very important factor. You may want to prove your commitment to work by being on time every day and meeting all the deadlines. At the same time, you must also maintain your mental well-being and work-life balance. This factor depends on your work environment.
  • Company Policy – You should acquaint yourself with your company’s leave policies and confirm with your hiring manager before applying for a leave. Based on this you can decide if you want a half-day leave or not.
  • Your relationship with your boss – It is easier to persuade your boss if you get along well with them. You can build a healthy relationship by fostering trust and proving to be reliable and honest. If you don’t get along with your boss it might be difficult to convince them to grant you half-day leave.
  • Your working pattern – If you are one of those employees who take frequent leaves, are always late, and leave early without a valid reason then you will likely have more difficulty while getting a leave.

If you fail to meet the requirements, then your chances of getting a half-day leave are going to be tough. Employees who work hard and have a good reputation at work are favoured by their supervisors.

Best excuses for half-day leave

Personal reasons

Sometimes, you may have to leave early from work and might not be comfortable sharing the reason behind it. You can write a formal letter to your boss stating that you want to take a half-day leave for personal reasons. You should mention that you will cover up your pending work.

You must request politely, and chances are that your boss might understand and agree.

Religious events

You might have an upcoming festival, for which you want to attend all your religious events. You can discuss this with your hiring manager and tell them that you want to make arrangements and prepare for your religious events, for which you’d like to leave early from work. 

Make sure that you complete all your tasks before taking a half-day leave.

Doctor’s appointment

You have a scheduled appointment with a doctor, which might require you to leave early from work. Generally, employers do agree if you have a medical visit. You can discuss your medical condition with your employer and make arrangements if you need to frequently visit the doctor.

Family emergencies

A family member may have gotten into an accident or someone in the family may be severely ill and you need to go visit them. Taking care of your spouse or children can also be considered a family emergency. Depending on the severity of the situation and your employer’s policy, you might be able to take a half-day leave.

Work commitments

Sometimes, you may have to travel for work-related projects or attend a workshop. Your employer may consider granting you a half-day leave to prepare for your presentation, or that you get enough rest before the big day. 

Parental Duties

You may have to pick up your child from school someday or attend a parent-teacher meeting. And which is why you’d like to take a half-day leave, this is a valid reason to tell your boss. There are hardly any chances of your boss denying you a half-day leave for this purpose.

Death in the family or loss of a loved one

Bereavement leaves are granted when there is a death in the family or you have lost a loved one and you need to perform final rites or attend their funeral and most importantly grieve. You will have to send your employer a formal letter for the same.

House emergency

It is possible that there could be a short circuit in the house, your spouse or your kid started a small fire by mistake while cooking, or during monsoon, your area or house might get flooded, and in many more such cases, you may have to rush back home. You can inform your supervisor/employer about the emergency and finish formalities accordingly.

Personal illness or injury

If you have an injury or an illness that allows you to work only limited hours per day then you may require a half-day leave so that you go back and rest well. Although, you must check your company’s leave policies and discuss with your hiring manager to work out an arrangement for the same.

How can I request a half-day leave?

Start by giving a genuine reason to leave work early. Excuses can be both good or bad, and you need to be careful about what reasons you’re giving. If you give a good enough reason to take a half-day leave, not only does it increase your chances to get the desired response but it also looks good on the professional side.

Giving a bad excuse can affect your work reputation.

Speak to your manager or supervisor directly, and figure out a way that works best for both. If you discuss it with your employer, they will be able to make arrangements to cover for you while you’re gone or you can finish all your pending work and then leave or give an option of working remotely. 

Make sure that your tone is very professional and courteous when you make a request. Chances are that your boss will agree to it if you’re polite enough and consider things from their point of view as well.

Write a formal application for half-day leave. This makes it easier for your HR to keep a record of all your leaves. The easier you make it for them, the easier they make things for you.

Don’t take undue advantage, if you take frequent leaves, your boss is not going to like it. This may seriously affect your career at the company.

Some good and bad reasons for half-day leave

Below are some good reasons to request a half-day leave:

  • Religious reasons
  • Community project related work
  • Client-related obligations
  • Professional development activities
  • Family reasons
  • Personal reasons
  • Sudden emergencies

Below are some bad reasons to request a half-day leave:

  • Feeling bored or lazy
  • Hangover
  • You want to hang out with friends
  • Getting into an argument with a colleague
  • Receiving bad news at work
  • Feeling overwhelmed
  • Going to watch a game
  • Minor personal issues
  • Non-urgent errands


In this brief guide, we discussed reasons for half-day leave, factors that may help or hurt your chances of getting a half-day leave, some good and bad reasons to take a half-day leave, and how to request leave.

I tried to sum up most in this article, and I hope these points help you draft your half-day leave application. 

What are some other good reasons or bad reasons for taking half-day leave?

Let me know in the comment section!

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs): Reasons for half-day leave

How do I ask my boss for a half-day off?

You can make a polite request, provide a formal letter, and give a genuine reason. For more tips check out this blog.

How do you ask for a day off at the last minute?

Tell them as soon as you know you have to leave and allow room for discussion later. Make sure to have a courteous tone, and give them as much as information possible. Assure them that you will cover up all the pending work.

What is a good reason for not showing up at work?

Some good reasons to not show up at work can include last-minute emergencies, medical reasons, mental health reasons, etc. Refer to this blog post to know more about some good reasons as well as bad reasons for not showing up at work.

What’s a good family emergency excuse?

Parental duties and health emergencies in the family can be used as an excuse for a family emergency. In most cases, employers understand these circumstances and will grant you leave.

Can my employer ask what my family emergency is?

Yes, your employer can ask you what your family emergency is. They will want you to mention it in your absence letter, and if you are not comfortable with sharing it in writing you may still have to explain it to them in person.


Good and bad excuses to leave work early. (n.d.). Balance Careers.

Valid reasons for requesting half day leave. (n.d.). Indeed Career Guide.

Realist vs Visionary (5 differences & similarities)

In this blog post, we are going to learn about what is a realist personality and what is a visionary personality. We will also be highlighting certain differences and similarities between a realist and a visionary. Later, we discuss how to find out if you are a realist or a visionary.

What is a realist?

Realists are people who think practically and from an objective perspective. They think of the world ”as it is”, they do not get carried away by unconscious biases or aims that are very idealistic. They prefer to look at the real world the way it is, without adding a lens to it.

They choose to believe in the truth, which is candid or unadorned. They are interested in observing people and knowing what’s happening to them. You may notice that while they are narrating a story, they are extremely straightforward and they like to state facts irrespective of how their story might sound.

For instance, a reporter who is a realist will always deliver the news as it is, without tampering with any part of the information. Opposed to someone who would twist the facts to gain more attention. In short, a realist is someone who identifies what is real and possible in a given situation.

Some common traits of a realist

  • Strong mechanical and athletic abilities

Someone with a realistic personality will be very confident with their body when it comes to physical activities. They are generally strong and well-coordinated and like to solve concrete problems by doing some physical activity. They are not in much favour of abstract problems.

  • Independent and practical-minded 

Because they have strong mechanical and athletic abilities, they often come in handy during emergencies. They are strong, practical, and very independent. Although, sometimes they can be aggressive and conservative. Communication skills might not be their forte.

  • Non-judgemental and grounded

They perceive the world as it is, do not get distorted by things and believe in transparency. They don’t make judgements about situations or people, rather they stay grounded and look at it from a practical viewpoint. They hardly ever consider distractions, and always want to observe actions as they occur.

What is Visionary?

A visionary person is someone who is creative and can think of a vision imaginatively, with a progressive perception. They often set examples with their extraordinary visionary and change-making capabilities. You will find them focused on their future, setting goals, visualising them, and sustaining them. They have a habit of solving problems from their roots.

This type of personality is one of the 16 various types of personality types that were discovered by Myers-Briggs Type Indicators.

They come up with multiple innovative ideas to achieve a challenge and become successful. They are in tune with work environment ethics, are always trying to adopt social principles and want to satisfy people.

For Example, someone who is a great leader will have visionary traits. They are great achievers and are very successful.

Some common traits of a visionary person

  • Innovative 

Innovation and creativity is their forte. They love coming up with new ideas and thinking out of the box. They believe in change and ascension through innovation.

  • Strong leadership qualities

They make a very good leader and are always adopting ways to make effective changes around them. They are goal-oriented people with strong judgment and analytical skills. They are very good at strategizing.

  • Flexible and Understanding 

They are understanding of situations and why people would react in a certain way. They have strong people skills and are also very flexible and are open to change. They are good at rapport building.

Visionary leaders are very open-minded, optimistic, and have a magnetic charisma. Their success stories are very inspirational and heartwarming. 

Visionary characteristics according to MBTI

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator has divided personality into four key proportions:

  • Extroversion and Introversion
  • Sending and Intuition
  • Thinking and Feeling
  • Perceiving and Judging


They are very easy going and get along very well with people. They have strong people skills and have a very outgoing personality. They are often open to new experiences.


They focus on the future more than the present. They believe it improves their performance. They may overburden themselves with multiple projects and may not be able to finish them all due to being solely focused on the future rather than present needs.


They are logical thinkers and support rational evidence instead of subjective information. They choose to make objective decisions.


They like to reserve their judgement to wait and watch what happens next. They will at times debate with you just to gain more information and perception about that particular topic. They avoid jumping to conclusions.

Key differences between realist vs visionary

Different people have different types of personality traits. Based on what we have discussed so far, we know that realistic and visionary traits can be distinguished to a certain level. Let us highlight five differences between realist vs visionary.

  • A realist will respond to the truth in its most natural form whereas a visionary will respond to effervescence and high spirits.
  • A realist will want to motivate the team through short-term achievements at a professional set-up whereas a visionary is very innovative and focusing on long-term goals.
  • A realist is a practical leader but is not good at goal setting and planning whereas a visionary is an impractical leader but is great at setting goals and planning.
  • Realists don’t indulge in a lot of debates and are very straightforward whereas a visionary will want to indulge in debates.
  • A realist may find it very difficult to justify their actions because they portray things as it is and hardly consider other factors whereas a visionary will always have different ideas to justify their actions.

I have briefly distinguished the two personality types. You can refer to different personality theories to gain a piece of better knowledge of traits.

Similarities between a realist and a visionary 

A realist and a visionary, both are perceived to be good leaders. They have good decision-making skills which are beneficial in the long run. Sometimes people might have a balance of both realist and visionary traits. 

You will find many people who will have a realistic as well as a visionary perspective. There might be times when you find yourself thinking innovatively whilst adapting an independent and practical approach.

You can either have a bit of both or have one personality type stronger than the other one. 

Are you a realist or a visionary 

Do you find yourself making judgements and analysing facts? Are you constantly striving towards setting goals and thinking of the future while ignoring the present? Do you enjoy being an extravert and interacting with people daily? 

If yes, then you might be a visionary.


Do you often indulge in activities that involve less interaction? Are you hardly ever swayed with unconscious biases? Do you perceive the world in the most real form without any filter?

If yes, then you might be a realist.

Although, if you wish to find out for sure and want to explore more about your personality, you may want to consider taking a personality test. These tests will bring you a greater deal of self-awareness. 


In this brief guide, we learned what is a realist personality and what is a visionary personality. I have also highlighted certain differences and similarities between a realist and a visionary. Later, we discussed how to find out if you are a realist or a visionary.

Are you a realist or a visionary?

Let me know in the comment section!

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs): Realist vs Visionary

What does it mean to be visionary?

When a person has innovative and creative abilities with the personality of an extrovert can be called a visionary. They have high intuitive and people skills and are also very good at communicating with others. 

What is a realist person like?

A realist person believes in the truth and perceives the world in its natural state. They are non-judgemental and very down to earth. They do not like beating around the bush and are very straight forward.

Is being a realist a bad thing?

One must not confuse being a realist with being pessimistic. Realistic thinking does not have to be negative always, which is why it is not a bad thing. Being a realist has its benefits. Read the first half of this blog to find out what a realist is and what are some of its good characteristics.

Who are some famous visionaries?

Some famous visionaries are Nelson Mandela, Fidel Castro, Henry Ford, Elon Musk, John Rockefeller, etc. There are my more famous leaders and celebrities who have a visionary style.

How to become a visionary?

You can start by defining your goals, using various motivation techniques to boost people around you, have a sense of purpose, and develop communication skills. You can also try reading biographies of some visionary leaders as it may inspire you and give you more insights on how to become visionary.

References (2020, December 25). Realist vs visionary (10 great differences & similarities).

Staff. (2020, September 28). ENTP: The visionary. Online Personality Tests.

What is a realist? | Realistic signs & traits | CogniFit. (2018, March 29). CogniFit.

List of reasons for casual leave (5 best reasons)

In this blog post, we discuss some reasons for casual leave. We also learn what casual leave is. I will be sharing 5 reasons for taking casual leave, which is the best in my opinion. Towards the end, we learn how to write a leave application.

What are some reasons to take casual leave?

Below are some common reasons to take casual leave:

  • You need to destress
  • You have family commitments
  • You need a mental health day
  • You want to enjoy the weather
  • You need a vacation
  • Difficulty in concentrating
  • Family emergency
  • Medical emergency
  • Bereavement leave
  • Religious reason
  • Parental duties
  • Doctor’s appointment
  • Menstrual cramps

An employee may need to take leave for a short period for personal reasons. They must give a professional application.

What is casual leave?

Casual leave is granted to an employee when there is an unseen emergency, or the employee needs to take leave for a day or two for personal reasons. Generally, employees put in an application when they require a day off for more than a day. In most companies, no more than 3 days are granted for casual leave.

The number of leaves granted may vary depending on the terms and policies at each organisation.

The company’s policy also tells if you can ask for leave directly (in case of emergencies) or if you have to write an application and wait for your request to be approved.

Based on the reasons mentioned above, you may be entitled to take some days off and depending on the circumstances you might get some employee benefits if applicable. This is why it is necessary to always check with your company’s leave policies.

Generally, the employer pays for casual leave. Depending on the terms and conditions of course. For instance, if you request for a paid casual leave and the company’s policy states that a casual leave is paid for only if it’s for 3 days, in such a case extending your leave might affect your salary and you may not get paid for the leave.

Sometimes, it is possible that your employer may not be willing to grant you a casual leave, in such cases, you can always explore your options and try to figure a way out.

5 best reasons to ask for casual leave

  • You need to de-stress

Job stress can be a lot sometimes and you may want to relieve the stress by taking a day or two off. It is important to deal with occupational stress before it adversely affects your health and career.

Heavy work-load, bitter relationships with your co-workers, and lack of sleep are all the reasons that can cause work-related stress. Therefore, you need to de-stress for success. There are multiple ways to de-stress at work and taking a day off is one of them.

  • Sick leave or medical leave

You may be suffering from a cold or high fever. Or you slipped in the bathroom and hurt yourself, in such cases you are entitled to ask for sick leave. Although, you may require to provide some proof or evidence. For eg: a medical receipt or a prescription signed by a doctor.

Based on the severity of your illness/injury and depending on the company’s leave policy, your employer will grant you sick leave. Now especially with the whole Covid-19 situation, it is more than likely that your boss will allow you to take a couple of days off.

  • You have a family emergency 

Family emergencies include various reasons that sometimes you may or may not want to disclose. Your family emergency could be a very personal reason. Even though you don’t want to disclose it, you must write an application to your boss.

Family emergencies may include one of your family members falling sick, getting into an accident, getting hospitalised, or a family dispute.

  • Religious reason

This is a pretty good reason to take leave. Religious holidays may or may not be granted as paid leaves, based on the company’s policy. Such holidays last not more than 3 to 4 days max. You can tell your boss that you’re hosting a religious function at your place, or you’re going to attend a religious function, or you are visiting a religious pilgrimage.

Different religions may follow different cultures and may have different types of functions/practices. And accordingly, people ask for leave. You can write a formal application in advance to your HR or employer, stating your reason. 

  • Bereavement leave

This type of leave is granted when there is a death in the family or the loss of a loved one. You use a bereavement leave when you have to participate in the last rites or funeral services. You also take leave when you have to care for personal matters concerning the person you lost, and primarily when you have to grieve.

Companies may offer leave from 2 to 20 days, depending on their terms and conditions. You can always check with your HR and find out. You may require an application requesting bereavement leave.

As listed at the start of this blog, there are numerous reasons for taking casual leave but in my opinion, I find these 5 options the best reasons.

How to request a leave of absence?

As mentioned above, there are different reasons why you may need to take extended time off work. Applying for leave with a formal written application is the most basic courtesy one should follow at a professional set-up.

There are certain points you should keep in mind while drafting your letter. 

  • Acquaint yourself with the company’s leave of absence policies.

Some employers may have a specific requirement or a certain outline as per which you need to send an application. You must always familiarise yourself with the terms and policies before typing an application.

  • Be specific about the duration of your leave

Whenever possible, determine your duration of leave and mention it in your application so that the employer is clear and can make adjustments accordingly. This way the employer can make arrangements to cover your work while you’re gone.

  • Have a meeting with your supervisor 

When you meet the supervisor, hiring manager or employer and discuss your leave application. They can figure out ways to distribute your workload and adjust in a way that benefits both the employer and the employee.

  • Submit your application in writing

Most preferably, send your leave application via email, this way it’s on record and no one can lose the application. It is easier for your supervisor to find or share your application whenever needed. Also, emails are professional and comply with work ethics. Make your letter look polite, crisp, and to the point. If you are not comfortable with mentioning certain specific details, you can always write “personal reasons” or “medical reasons”.

  • Think of alternatives

Before applying for a leave, if you have already thought of alternatives on how you can cover up all your pending work then chances are that you will receive the desired response from your employer. You will also be a little relaxed and won’t be constantly thinking of finishing your pending work.

Keeping these points in mind will help you. For more details, you can find multiple samples of LOA on the internet. If you’re new to writing professional letters/applications, always consider referring to a sample.


In this brief guide, we listed various reasons for taking casual leave. Later we discussed the 5 best reasons, and how to ask for casual leave.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs): What are some reasons to take casual leave?

How do I take leave for personal reasons? 

You can refer to a section of this blog where I have suggested some points to keep in mind while drafting your leave of absence letter. Companies do grant leaves for personal reasons, but it is always considered in consonance with their terms and policies.

Can you get fired for taking a leave of absence? 

There are chances of you getting fired for taking a leave of absence if you take leave without informing prior, or without sending an application. If your request for leave and it’s denied and you still end up taking leave anyway then there is a possibility that your employer might fire you.

Another reason to get fired is if you lie about your reason and get caught. 

How many absences are considered excessive? 

Excessive absenteeism is when you take more than 2-3 casual leaves every month. Your reason may or may not be valid, but frequently asking for leave is considered excessive. Not only will this affect your career at that particular company but it also ruins your work ethic profile.

Can an employer deny personal leave? 

Yes, the employer can deny a personal leave if you have taken way too many leaves in the past, exhausted all your entitled leaves, or if you have lots of pending work as it is. There could be various other reasons why an employer could deny a personal leave, it all depends on your track record and the company’s policies.

Is calling in sick an excuse?

Calling in sick is a valid excuse. When you are not feeling sick you must let your employer know and preferably send a letter stating that you won’t be able to make it for a couple of days because you’re sick.

Sometimes, employees fake being sick just to get a day off at work. If you’re planning on faking it, make sure you’re aware of the company’s terms and conditions and also you have the required and necessary proofs.


Cohen, S. (1997). De-stress for success. Training & Development, 51(11), 76-81.

Leave of absence letter request (With examples). (n.d.). Indeed Career Guide.

Tiwari, D. (2020, April 23). List of reasons for taking casual leave (13 reasons). OptimistMinds.

What is a Lopsided Smile?

In this blog post, we are going to discuss what a lopsided smile means, what causes a lopsided smile. We also learn how to use a lopsided smile and how people perceive them. 

Towards the end, we have discussed certain ways to fix a lopsided smile, followed by the benefits of smiling. 

What is a lopsided smile?

 A lopsided smile is an uneven smile. It appears uneven in a way where the left side and the right side of the mouth do not match. One side of the face is pulled up in a way where it’s smiling and the other side is the opposite which means it may be downturned.

What causes a lopsided smile?

Below are some health conditions that can cause an asymmetrical face:


Sometimes genes and development can cause a lopsided smile. If it runs in your family, chances are that you might have it too.

Lifestyle habits

Sometimes having a poor posture, or sleeping with your face pressed against the pillow, and some other similar habits can all contribute to having an asymmetrical face.


Injury to your face in childhood, having facial surgery due to an injury, or experiencing trauma can sometimes cause a lopsided smile.

Bell’s Palsy

Bell’s Palsy is caused due to paralysis of facial nerves. It weakens the muscles on one side of your face and can cause a lopsided smile.  

Sun Damage

With growing age, exposure to the sun and it’s UV rays may lead to developing spots, patches, and moles on your skin. This can be caused to one side or area of your face, where there is the maximum amount of sun damage.


Smoking regularly exposes you to toxins, hence increasing the chances of having an asymmetrical face. 

Dental Work

The use of dentures or having dental veneers may sometimes change the symmetry of your face. Getting a tooth extracted, causes changes in the facial muscles which may be another cause for asymmetry.


The facial asymmetry increases with your growing age. Naturally, your ears and nose grow as you change, causing asymmetry.


There are different signs of a stroke, when you identify signs such as dropping of the face or your smile is suddenly uneven you must immediately consult a doctor. 

Experiencing numbness and difficulty in speaking are also some common signs of a stroke.


Also known as a twisted neck, is a condition where the person has abnormal positioning of neck muscles. This condition can sometimes take place in the womb itself.

Most cases are temporary and the symptoms can be resolved, it is hardly ever permanent.

Various other health conditions can cause a lopsided smile or contribute to facial asymmetry. Apart from health conditions, sometimes there are other reasons why people may intentionally use a lopsided smile.

What are some uses of a lopsided smile?

A lopsided smile is used when there is a presence of incongruent emotions. People smile unevenly when:

  • They can’t fully commit to contentment
  • Don’t particularly feel happy but smile just to acknowledge the opposite person
  • Smirking or trying to flirt
  • Joking around or making a sarcastic comment
  • To portray humour and uncertainty

When people don’t want to be perceived seriously in certain situations, they often use a lopsided smile.

How do people perceive a lopsided smile?

When you flash a lopsided smile, it is usually perceived as a frame of mind that is uncertain.

For instance, if you ask someone if they’re feeling okay and they say they’re doing good but smile in a lopsided way; you’re going to think that maybe they are lying or are trying to be sarcastic.

The uneven smile is often used to depict cheeky humour amongst friends and is perceived as a presence of conflicting emotions. An apologetic smile can also look similar to a lopsided smile. You can couple a lopsided smile with a shoulder shrug or with upturned palms.

A lopsided smile shows sometimes that you’re hiding something or are apprehensive about something. It doesn’t have to always convey joy. You can tell that the person is trying to hide how uncomfortable they are or that they’re not too happy talking about a particular topic.

How to fix a lopsided smile?

A smile can bring you lots of confidence. Although, you should only try to change your smile if it’s affecting your confidence level.

If you feel you have a crooked, uneven, or lopsided smile, here are some ways to fix it:

  • Chew on both sides of your mouth
  • Sleep on both sides evenly
  • Practice facial exercises
  • Play around with your smile, choose whatever suits you the best
  • Use concealer to contour your lips
  • Use a lip filler to plump your lips 
  • Get dental fixes 

Again, you don’t have to change anything about your smile if you are completely confident and comfortable about it.

It’s all about the way you feel.

If you have a developed a lopsided smile due to medical reasons, then it best to consult a health expert or a doctor. 

They can provide you with the options that are available, depending on your condition.

Benefits of smiling 

Smiling can boost your mood as well as your confidence. It leads to a perception of positivity. It also has multiple health benefits.

Such as: 

  • Reduced blood pressure
  • Reduced stress
  • Strengthening of the immune system
  • It elevates your mood

Smiling is contagious, when you smile, others smile looking at you. It helps you stay positive, when you find yourself in a tough situation and you smile, it automatically uplifts your mood a little and can help you deal with your problems. 

Irrespective of how forced a smile is, it automatically sends a signal that you got this and things can turn out to be better with a positive outlook. 

When you go for your interview and if you’re smiling, there is a high chance that you will look more confident. You will notice a better response.


In this brief guide, we discussed what a lopsided smile means, what causes a lopsided smile. We also learned how to use a lopsided smile and how people perceive them. Towards the end, we have discussed certain ways to fix a lopsided smile, followed by the benefits of smiling. 

Always remember, you can rock an uneven face with the right amount of confidence. As long as you are comfortable, no one can make you feel inferior about your smile. Mess around with your smile and use a smile that makes you feel the most comfortable and at ease.

Let me know your opinions!

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ): Lopsided Smile

What causes a lopsided smile?

Various health conditions such as Bell’s Palsy, Misaligned teeth, Hemifacial microsomia, Overbite, Torticollis, Sun Damage, etc. can cause a lopsided smile. In most cases, it can be cured or fixed through fillers and facial implants and various other techniques.

Sometimes, complexity in genetics can also cause facial asymmetry. Cleft lip and palate and vascular complications are health conditions that studies point to as a cause for a lopsided smile.

Are lopsided smiles attractive?

Sometimes, a crooked smile can appear to be attractive. It adds to your charm if you use it at the right place at the right time. It can make you look easygoing and relaxed. Although, in some cases, lopsided smiles can look pretty weird. And that’s when people try to fix it through different techniques. 

Does sleeping on your side cause an asymmetrical face?

Some people may have the idea that constantly sleeping on your side, or sleeping on your belly, or sitting with crossed legs for too long can cause an asymmetrical face. Some even believe that having a bad posture or resting your face on your hand can contribute to an uneven face.

Why does my face look lopsided when I look in the mirror?

Generally, mirrors flip forwards and backwards and not horizontally. When you look in the mirror the right side of your face stays at the right side of the mirror and the same with the left side.  The reason why your face looks different is that your perspective has left/right flipped around. 

Can you fix an asymmetrical face naturally?

Yes, in some cases, facial asymmetry can be fixed naturally. Various techniques such as facial exercise and face yoga can help you fix an asymmetrical face. It also helps you look younger, and improves the contouring of your face.


Body language of the uneven smile or lopsided smile. (2015, June 6). Nonverbal Body Language Dictionary.

How to fix an uneven smile and look your best. (2020, December 31). wikiHow: How-to instructions you can trust. Retrieved March 19, 2021, from

Jaffe, E. (2011). The psychological study of smiling. APS Observer, 23(10).

Mary Grace B Quitalig. (2021, March 4). Lopsided smile (A complete guide). OptimistMinds.

Neuhoff, C. C., & Schaefer, C. (2002). Effects of laughing, smiling and howling on mood. Psychological Reports, 91(3_suppl), 1079-1080.

Watson, K. (n.d.). Asymmetrical face: Causes, treatments, and more. Healthline.

Depression In INFPs (A Complete Guide)

This article will explore who an INFP is and why theory experiences depression. Also the article will point out how these individuals deal with depression and what tips can they follow to help them through this tough experience. The article will also look at what depression is as a mental disorder!

What Is Depression Like In INFPs?

Depression in INFPs can be characterized by the following:

  • Experiencing Sleep Problems
  • The End Of Good Things
  • Magnifying On The Imperfections
  • Mood Swings – Crying A Lot
  • Thinking Negatively

Before we look at the above in detail, we will explore the INFP personality and what traits they have!

Who Is An INFP Type? The Mediator!

An INFP personality type is introverted, intuitive, feeling and perceiving. These individuals are insightful, creative and like to imagine! They are careful in their approach to life and are not very sociable.

Being caring, they are able to foster very strong and deeply rooted relations with their loved ones although they may seem quiet or shy at first but that is because they like to spend a lot of time reflecting over their thoughts, ideas and their observations of the environment around them.

Oftentimes, mediators use creative ways to express themselves such as poetry, art or acting. They are very focused on human emotion and value it greatly hence they are empathetic and believe that honesty should be prioritized. They possess good emotional intelligence and are able to quickly identify how a person is feeling.

Furthermore, as we mentioned previously, these individuals like to stay in the realm of their thoughts; they fantasize, daydream, reflect or even recall old memories. However, if they are not able to act upon what goes on in their minds they will become quite frustrated.

Strengths Of The Mediator.

These individuals are very loyal to what they believe in or who they commit to and won’t let these elements down. The INFP is also passionate about what they believe in and will put in great effort to achieve it or promote their beliefs. They are honest, caring and empathetic as they are able to understand someone’s life by putting themselves into their shoes. 

What is interesting is that the mediator is creative and open minded so they can come up with a wide variety of ideas that are unique and innovative!

The Weaknesses Of The Mediator.

Sometimes these individuals are so passionate or creative that they may end up taking impractical steps which leads them to failure; this will frustrate them even more and they may become self critical which will further plummet their motivation levels. This results from their nature of being overly idealistic as well because they are so committed to making this world a better place for others.

As they are introverted and prefer spending time in their own world of thoughts, these individuals can be a bit difficult to get to know. Furthermore, they are conflict averse and tend to avoid issues rather than confronting them.

What Is Depression Like In INFPs?

Here we will look at what it feels like to be an INFP who is going through depression!

Experiencing Sleep Problems

INFPs experience a lot of sleeping problems when they experience depression. They are either unable to sleep or sleep too much to avoid the sadness they feel or absence of happiness. They also want to escape all the negative thoughts that they have.

As these personality types are very passionate and prefer to stay in their mind, the effects of depression hit them hard. They are already used to being alone and now being alone can have detrimental effects on them; their thoughts will make them stay up or want to keep on sleeping. In either case, they are at an extreme side.

The End Of Good Things

INFPs are personality types who strongly believe in the good that is present in life. They want good not only for themselves but for others too. However, in depression, they feel as if the goodness is being sucked out of their life. Why it hurts them is because they are so passionate to see the bright side in things and that is also what they tell people.

On top of that, not only does the good seem to wither away but also they begin experiencing too many bad events – possibly they start to see the bad they previously ignored or maybe they no longer have the ability to see the good in things and focus on that. 

Nevertheless, the phase of depression on an INFP is tough and they feel as if they themselves who used to believe in the goodness of life can no longer see it. This makes them terribly sad.

Magnifying On The Imperfections

People who are INFPs usually like to focus on the bright side of life. However, when it comes to depression they only seem to see the negative side of things and it seems too negative to bear. They begin focusing on what imperfections they have and see life through this lens. If something goes wrong they will blame themselves and not see how other factors contribute to the situation. 

Even if they see how things lead to a negative outcome, they tend to focus on how they as a person may have played a better role to prevent the bad from happening. So in any case, they will hold their own self accountable.

Mood Swings – Crying A Lot

These individuals are very emotional as they have the feeling function when it comes to personality types. This makes their depression even worse because they are able to extensively feel the sadness that occupies them inside. 

As a result, when they are overwhelmed by their feelings, they experience a lot of crying spells; they will prefer to be alone and not show others how they feel. Other than this being a trait of depression, they as INFPs do not want to be more vulnerable to others hence they tend to keep their depression a secret.

Thinking Negatively

The INFP takes a 180 degree turn and begins to think negatively instead of that positive outlook they had in life; they will expect the worst of things, find no reason to motivate themselves or others and prefer to stay quiet instead of interacting with other people to help them out of their bad situation.

What Is Depression?

It is a mood disorder that affects a person’s life on a daily basis oftentimes making them unproductive. They are unable to engage in their routines or interests like they used to particularly because they experience feelings of sadness, loss or even anger.

Depression affects people differently; sometimes it only affects their health or relations or even their daily work however, in some cases it can affect all 3.

This mood disorder can affect anyone regardless of gender or age. It affects your sleep patterns, sexual drive, decreases your interest in activities you previously enjoyed a lot, makes you feel tired and negatively affects your emotional, mental and physical well being. You may either lose weight or gain it depending on how you cope with your issues.

There are a number of causes of depression. It may be caused by:

  • Family History
  • Ongoing Events
  • Past Trauma
  • Drug Usage
  • Brain Structure – Frontal Lobe

Regardless of what depression is, it is necessary to understand what a person goes through when they have it and how they can recover from this stage. We will now look at some tips on how INFPs can cope with this mood disorder!

How Can INFPs Cope With Depression?

There are a number of ways INFPs can cope with depression although a combination of different activities may work differently for people. Here are a few tips:

  • Visit A Therapist – Diagnose The Severity
  • Exercise
  • Listen To Others – Don’t Isolate
  • Focus On How To Improve Your Sleep
  • Improve Your Diet
  • Determine The Cause Of Depression – Battle It Strategically
  • Keep A Diary – Write About The Good Things


The article looked at how INFPs experience depression and how it affects them. Also, the article described the INFP personality type and what depression basically is. Lastly, the article provided a few tips on how INFPs can battle depression.

Frequently Asked Questions: Depression In INFPs

What is depression?

Depression is a mood disorder that affects a person’s life on a daily basis oftentimes making them unproductive.

Who is an INFP?

An INFP personality type is introverted, intuitive, feeling and perceiving. These individuals are insightful, creative and like to imagine! They are careful in their approach to life and are not very sociable.

Are INFPs aware of others’ emotions?

INFPs are aware of other’s emotions because they have the feeling function.


9w1 Celebrities: The Negotiators(Top 7 Guide)

This article will explore what famous celebrities from the world of sports, films and even the royal families fall into the category of enneagram 9w1. The article will not only look at these celebrities in detail but will also highlight the major traits and strengths and weaknesses of the type 9w1 in order for a comprehensive understanding to be developed.

Famous 9w1 Celebrities: The Top 7 List

Here are a number of famous celebrities who fall into this enneagram category:

  • Keanu Reeves
  • Queen Elizabeth II
  • Morgan Freeman
  • Walt Disney
  • Abraham Lincoln
  • Owen Wilson
  • Maggie Gyllenhaal

Before we take a look at these celebrities in detail, we will help explain what the type 9w1 enneagram is and what their major personality traits are so the audience can see why these popular individuals are categorized as 9w1 enneagram!

What Is The Enneagram Type 9w1?

The enneagram type 9w1 is an enneagram which identifies mostly with the type 9 enneagram but also shares some traits with the type 1 enneagram. These individuals are pretty much stable in life with an accepting and trusting behaviour. They are friendly and are hence approachable by others; they tend to create relationships easily with others due to their traits of trusting and accepting others as they are.

This enneagram wants everything to be smooth. They make sure they themselves behave and feel as well as think in such a way that there are no hurdles and they expect the same from others. They want to be in a conflict free zone where people have a generally accepting nature and do not let any elements of their thoughts or feelings create any sort of dispute.

People with this personality are usually optimistic and want to think good of others or the events that are going around them. This is necessary to maintain a peaceful state of affairs internally and externally.

What Is The Basic Fear Of The Negotiator.

The name puts it right on the table! The negotiator is afraid of losing what they are fighting for; basically, they do not want to lose the thing or people that matters to them the most and they will put in all their efforts to keep what they want with them.

They are afraid of separation and distance coming between them and their loved ones. Whether it is a foreign assignment, new work tasks that prevent the negotiator from being at home with loved ones or the new kid at school who is slowly taking over their friends, the negotiator fears whatever can be a source of destruction for their most loved relations.

What Is The Basic Desire Of Type 9w1 Enneagrams?

The type 9w1 enneagram desires peace which is not only external but internal too. They want to feel content, satisfied and secure in their life and not be fearful that someone or something can take away what they desire most. Their wing 1 personality encourages them towards an idealized world hence these individuals not only want peace but the best type of peace which can only be achieved if they create a surrounding that is based on the best foundations.

Famous 9w1 Celebrities: The Top 7 List

Keanu Reeves

Born in 1964, Keanu is a canadian actor who is known for his roles in movies like Speed and The Matrix Trilogy! He can be described as someone who is down to earth, humble and very friendly. Like type 9w1 enneagrams, he is approachable in the sense that people find him warm and kind hearted. 

He is seen to invest a lot in his relations. The women he fell in love with were very dear to his heart and it was obvious he was afraid to lose them. He also has a very close relationship with his sister whom he took care of because of her sickness. He is indeed loyal to his loved ones and will not back down in their times of need!

He is someone who wants things to be very clear and straightforward; even in his relations that is what he desires, long term commitment and loyalty as well as support.

He is very organized, clear in his thoughts and goals and is hard working. When he initially began working to get into the movie business, he put in hard and long hours with his friend whom he sadly lost after a short period when they first began acting.

Keanu is someone who understands human feelings but does not let it keep him away from following an organized and disciplined work routine.

Queen Elizabeth II

Born on 21st of April, 1926 in Mayfair, London, she is currently serving as the Queen of the United Kingdom and 15 other commonwealth realms. She is 94 years old and her full name is Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor. Among her children are Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, Duke of York and Anne. She got married to Prince Phillip who is the Duke of Edinburgh in 1947 and the two have successfully kept the marriage ongoing since then.

To be honest and blunt, the Queen is no lesser than a tomboy who has had her fair share of days. She loves to drive cars and ride horses, she even worked as a mechanic during the second world war and she adores her beloved dogs – she is definitely not your typical Queen.

The queen is a people person in the sense that she knows how to get along with others and make them feel at home. She is warm and friendly – unless there is something very off putting about the other person – hence she can connect with people from diverse backgrounds. Other than that, she is fond of throwing lavish parties where she can entertain her guests. Her sister, Princess Margaret, was known as the party girl though.

She has an interesting personality in that she takes much pleasure in not being recognized for who she is. She also is quiet and not very fond of all the attention a queen can get through she is used to the spotlight and knows she must put up with it. Once, she even joked to the Prime Minister of Canada by thanking him for making her feel so old!

Morgan Freeman

He is one of the famous actors and narrators – obviously – people of this generation have known. He is famous for his roles in many movies such as God Almighty, The Batman Series, Shawshank Redemption and the Bucket List. He is currently 83 years old.

He is one of those individuals, like other typical 9w1 enneagrams, who wants peace not only internally but externally as well! He is optimistic, peaceful and accepting of others and their beliefs.

He apparently likes to take things slow and take his time to understand what people do or say. He wants to ensure that things run smoothly in life with as little friction as possible. It is funny that even in his movie roles this is the same personality that is reflected in him.

Although somewhat reserved like other celebrities we mentioned, he is determined and passionate about what he believes in and likes to put in the hard work it requires. 

Walt Disney

An American film and TV producer and the pioneer of animated cartoons, he was indeed the determined leader one could think of when asked! Walt Disney was driven by his passion and determination to fulfill his dreams and goals which is a defining trait of other enneagrams of his type.

He is indeed defined as a leader because of how others looked up to him; he was kind and friendly and people had no issue approaching him. He was one who believed in the people and their dreams. He strived to fulfill his vision of creating the company he is most famous for. One of the reasons he succeeded and became one of the most successful business tycoons at the time of his death was because he never stopped believing.

Abraham Lincoln

The 16th president of the United States of America, Abraham Lincoln was born in Kentucky, United States in 1809 and was assassinated in 1865 at the age of 56 years. He was known for his moral rhetoric and how he wanted to see a smooth functioning society where people could live in peace and get the justice and rights they deserved.

He was not only the president but also worked as a lawyer though he was largely self educated. The former president is known for his role in the American Civil War and he fought against slavery to abolish this system.

Owen Wilson

A great and funny actor who has starred in numerous movies including that of Night in the Museum, Owen Wilson is warm and kind hearted; he radiates kindness and hence attracts many people to himself. They feel comfortable enough to talk to him and he also understands the human emotional element.

Generally, he is loyal, faithful and kind hearted. He is greatly attached to his kids and is hospitable and domestic. He is generally ebay going and is not concerned with how he looks. He just wants to have a good time in a peaceful way.

Maggie Gyllenhaal

Born in 1977, Maggie is an American Actress who is full of compassion and wants to help others. She is loving and kind hearted and fits the enneagram 9w1 type perfectly well.


The article listed famous celebrities who are enneagram 9w1 types and described their personality in detail. It also explained what the enneagram type 9w1 is and what it’s traits are!

Frequently Asked Questions: 9w1 Celebrities: The Negotiators

Who is a 9w1 enneagram?

The term 9w1 is a term that is used to describe an enneagram which has traits predominantly from the type 9 enneagram but also some traits from type 1.

What makes an enneagram type 9w1 go into stress?

The type 9w1 enneagram goes into stress when they feel as if things are not going as planned.

What is an enneagram type 9w1 good at?

The type 9w1 enneagram is good at staying positive in difficult times, coming up with creative solutions and developing relations with others.

Why is Morgan Freeman a 9w1 type?

Morgan Freeman is a 9w1 type because he likes to maintain peace and connects well with others.


Famous INTJ Characters: The Architects(7 Personalities)

This article will look at famous personalities or fictional characters who are INTJs by discussing their major personality traits that they display. To help the audience develop a deeper understanding, the article will also introduce the INTJ personality type and highlight it’s strengths and weaknesses.

The List of Famous INTJ Characters: Top 7

The following list presents famous personalities and characters who have the INTJ personality type according to the Myer Briggs test:

  • Bruce Wayne – Batman
  • Ender Wiggin – Ender’s Game
  • Gill – Finding Nemo
  • Doctor Strange
  • Darcy – Pride and Prejudice
  • Ray – Promised Neverland
  • Dr. House – House

Before we look at each character in detail, we will take a look at what exactly is the INTJ personality type and what dominant traits does it exhibit!

What Is The INTJ Personality Type – The Architect

The INTJ personality type is also known as the architect and they have an introverted, intuitive, thinking and judging function hence they are very logical in the steps or decisions they make all while applying creativity and rationality to life. These individuals are complex thinkers who often keep to themselves.

They are one of the rare personality types of the MBTI inventory of personalities because very few people are able to keep up with the analysis they carry out of everything around them. They, although cynical of human nature thus classifying them as lazy and boring, believe that anything can be achieved if they work hard and think in an intelligent manner.

They might be mocked or made fun of but the architect takes much pride in what they do; these personality types are very fond of books and want to gain more knowledge whenever they can. They will be given labels such as that of nerds or bookworms – for them these titles are not embarrassing but an honor. They may seem serious, but they also have a very sarcastic sense of humor.

Not only are they independent but they want to be successful and not just innovative or creative. They want to employ the power of their brains and the resources they have to make something that actually works! They do not mind working alone and if they consider someone a hurdle they will bypass them outright! They are sometimes considered as insensitive as they do not take into account others feelings.

7 Famous INTJ Personalities

Bruce Wayne – Batman

With his dashing looks, Mr. Wayne is the perfect image of the INTJ personality. He has the brains and this is apparent from his cool collection of gadgets and weapons that he obviously uses against the villains.

He is also one who respects authority but nevertheless goes against it because he knows he can’t achieve his goals without causing disruption in the status quo which the authorities dislike greatly. On the outside, there is a rift between the two parties and Batman must escape from the police however on the inside, both of them know they are on the same side.

Bruce is a determined man who thinks well of Gotham’s future – his is not overly idealistic in the sense that he takes up practical steps to actually introduce change.

One interesting trait about Mr. Wayne is that he is indeed romantically clueless. His true love is a woman whom he never seems to understand or maybe she is just different from the rest of the lot out there – she is someone who is not after his fame or money but the little boy she met many years ago who seems to have disappeared when Mr. Wayne finally emerged into the picture as he grew up. Failing to impress his love many times, Bruce is left scratching his head on how to impress Rachel.

Ender Wiggin – Ender’s Game

He is one who is driven by the logic he sees in his surroundings – this is why Ender can easily figure out complex puzzles others are baffled by! He is also able to predict what will happen in the near future because he is so good at recognizing the patterns that underlie certain phenomena!

He is indeed someone who likes to reflect and see things for what they truly are. Although wanting the greater good, he is not very emotionally expressive and tends to focus on the goals he has set. Even in the movie, he is shown as a determined young boy who trains viciously to save his race!

Some argue that he is a blend between the INTJ and INFJ personality because he does somewhat relate to the species they are attacking and understand their true emotions – for this one must be empathetic. Nonetheless, he is a good example of an INTJ character.

Gill – Finding Nemo

He is another great example of the architect personality. The movie shows him trying to figure out plans to escape the fish tank and he likes to use much logic in his decisions. He also finds it hard to take the other fish feelings into consideration!

Doctor Strange

Extremely logical and structured, this is not your ordinary doctor! The character of Doctor Strange is obsessed with knowledge and wants to have more and more of it. He has also understood how to use reality and his intuition to control things. He is extremely private and withdrawn and this trait makes sure he does not leak important secrets of the world.

Darcy – Pride and Prejudice

A true introvert, Mr. Darcy is one of the favorite characters of people – mostly women – because of his gentleman-like manners! After all he is a gentleman. He prefers the quiet indoors rather than the parties or events of his time. He is very structured even in his conversations and likes to approach everything logically.

Ray – The Promised Neverland

He is way mature for his age and this may be because of how he thinks. However, he is very ambitious when it comes to freeing the kids from the orphanage; he has realized the truth using his brilliant mind and intuition and will stop at nothing to achieve his goals.

Dr. House – House

With his extreme sarcasm, this doctor loves putting logic even when it comes to the human body and behavior. It is better not to mess with him or lie because he can easily point out the mislogic in your explanations.

The Strengths & Weaknesses – Common Traits of Famous INTJs

Let’s take a quick look at traits most of the above INFJ characters have!

  • Informed
  • Determined
  • Curious
  • Versatile
  • Arrogant
  • Emotional Insensitivity
  • Dislike Authority
  • Romantically Clueless


These individuals only use information that is based on evidence. They dislike using any sort of information that is not based on fact or is  illogical in that it may be very appealing emotionally but has no logic in it!


People with this personality type are determined hence they are goal oriented and ambitious. They want to achieve great heights in life and will put in all the effort and energy required. This determination is what drives them even when they are facing tough times. They will not be scared when they face challenges or get stuck at a certain point in their journey; they will try, try and try again!


Of course they are driven by this virus of curiosity! They are eager to know about various phenomena that are going on in their surroundings and want to know the relationships that are underlying these! INFJs are eaten up inside if they do not find out the why and how of things; they are pushed to attain more knowledge and this is what helps them gather enough for their research.


Yes the INTJ is extremely versatile and will adapt to many situations!


The personality type of the architect may seem arrogant because of their stubborn attitude and refusal to move away from their logic. Also, they often dismiss the emotions of others!

Emotional Insensitivity

It is difficult for these personality types to understand the significance of emotions like others do hence they can be ignorant in this area and may seem rude or even insensitive.

Dislike Authority

It is no surprise how you see most of the above characters going against the authorities but of course for a greater purpose. They cannot be stopped by people from achieving their end goals.

Romantically Clueless

INTJs have a hard time when it comes to romance! They may not understand why they fail at relations and will become frustrated. Emotions are afterall a difficult area for them to trudge on!


This article looked at famous characters who have the INTJ personality type and described their major traits. To help the audience develop a better understanding, the article also introduced the INTJ type and highlighted the strengths and weaknesses of the INTJ characters.

Frequently Asked Questions: Famous INTJ Characters: The Architects

Who is an INTJ personality?

An INTJ personality is someone who is logical and ambitious but not emotional.

What is a bad habit of INTJs?

A bad habit of an INTJ is that they find it hard to listen to people’s opinions unless they have facts.

Who does an INTJ like?

The INTJ likes someone who is assertive and backs their opinions with logic. They also like straightforward people who are honest.


Erikson’s 8 stages ( A complete insight)

Erickson’s 8 Psychosocial Stages of Development(A Complete Guide)

This article will explore the 8 stages of Erickson’s psychosocial theory that focuses on how social events affect our personality! It will highlight the conflict in each stage and describe what the possible outcomes could be.

What Are Erickson’s 8 Psychosocial Stages of Development

The 8 stages of Erickson’s Psychosocial development have been listed below:

  • Stage: Trust vs Mistrust
  • Stage 2: Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt
  • Stage 3: Initiative vs Guilt
  • Stage 4: Industry vs Inferiority
  • Stage 5: Identity vs  Confusion
  • Stage 6: Intimacy vs Isolation
  • Stage 7: Generation vs Stagnation
  • Stage 8: Integrity vs Despair

Before we look at each stage in detail, let us explore Erickson’s theory of personality development.

What Is Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development?

Erickson was a famous professor at Harvard and Yale even though he did not even own a bachelor’s degree; he is known for coining the term ‘Identity Crisis’ and came up with his theory of psychosocial development which differs from Freud’s theory of psychosexual development!

He was an American German psychologist who with his wife Joan came up with their famous theory we will be studying in this article. He was inspired by Sigmund Freud and his theory on how individuals develop.

The theory of psychosocial development believes that every healthy individual must pass through conflicts they experience at every stage of their life, from infancy to old age, in order to develop a health personality. The conflict arises due to the discrepancy between the needs of the individual and those of society. If the individual is able to cope with this conflict they will not only develop a healthy personality but also gain an important virtue. Those who do not pass these stages fall short of their personal development. He focuses on how social experiences and not the sexualones affect our personality development.

We will now look at each stage in detail!

The 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development.

Trust vs Mistrust – Stage 1

This stage is from the birth of the child up to 1 years of age where they are not sure if they can trust those who are around them. The mother’s role is vital during this stage where she must make sure that the infant feels safe and secure and well taken care of. 

If the infant can trust others during this stage of life then this means they can also trust others later on in life and they will not be very distant or suspicious of people and will be able to develop good relations. It is important that mother’s give much time and attention to their child; they can do this by feeding them timely, ensuring frequent physical contact and making sure they do not leave them crying alone.

However, if the mother is unavailable, not loving enough or inconsistent, this will result in the baby developing mistrust. Hence it is important enough attention is given to the infant that too continuously.

Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt – Stage 2

This stage usually lasts between the 1st and 3rd years of life where the child can either gain a sense of identity in terms of self control and being able to choose for themselves or shamed for their accidents.

It is during this stage that the child explores their surroundings and examines their own body and discovers what skills and resources they have in terms of moving around and picking up and tasting things. An important part of this stage is to allow the child to develop autonomy and this can be done if the child is given enough freedom to experiment and not be shamed for what mistakes they make.

Potty training allows children of this age to develop some sense of control over themselves. If they are encouraged to control their body functions then they will feel confident and have some control in their life.

Success at this stage leads to a sense of autonomy whereas failure leads to doubt and shame and an inability to develop oneself openly.

Initiative vs Guilt – Stage 3

This stage occurs during the preschool years when the child is around 3-5 years of age. This stage entails experiencing one’s environment and seeing how much control they have over it. If they are encouraged to explore their environment successfully, the child will develop a sense of taking an initiative whereas if they are scolded for being too open or explorative in their surroundings they will be made to feel guilty.

It is important that both parents encourage their child to explore the surroundings. They should keep an eye on the child but make sure they push him or her to go a bit far without them as well so they do not feel too attached.

Industry vs Inferiority – Stage 4

At this stage, the influence of peers and teachers is very powerful. The fourth stage lasts from the 5th to 11th year of the individual’s life and they must be encouraged in their areas of work otherwise they will feel incompetent or useless.

If they get the right encouragement they will feel skilled and competent in their area and work harder to achieve better results. Hence parents must make sure they provide a healthy and constructive environment to their children and not one that is critical.

Examples of children who experience too much conflict at this stage include being scolded by their teachers for trying out new things and not doing exactly what they were asked to; it is important for the teacher to realize that children are to be given an environment in which they can grown their already present skills in a healthy manner. They will act differently and that is okay!

Passing this stage successfully means the child will be confident in the skills they have and apply them through hard work otherwise if they fail at this stage they will feel inferior.

Identity vs Confusion – Stage 5

It is important that at this stage parents do not enforce their beliefs on the child. They must let them explore their surroundings and find an appropriate identity that they want to match or follow. This occurs during the teen years from 12 to 18 years of age and may be quite turbulent!

If children are encouraged to explore they will feel independent, understand society’s needs and be able to establish a sense of control as well as that of identity in them.

Intimacy vs Isolation – Stage 6

This is a very important stage of life that occurs between the years of 20 to 40 and individuals are greatly affected by their friends and loved ones at this stage. If they are able to form intimate, long term relations then they will feel safe and secure however, if not then they will feel lonely and isolated.

It is important that elders and the society encourage young adults to seek out relationships that are beneficial for them in the long term and carry traits of loyalty, commitment, honesty and true friendship. At this stage, people will leave those relations that they were involved in only for the sake of fitting in. The relations they will form now will be the ones they want to continue for their own well being and that of the other.

Generativity vs Stagnation – Stage 7

It is important that elders leave behind a lesson for others or impact the world by contributing in a beneficial way. People who have not resolved prior conflicts and feel pessimistic and lonely may not be able to pass this stage and will live a stagnant life. However, those who feel as if they have something to contribute to society will get out of their homes and try to teach others or help them.

Also, people have children whom they raise in a good manner so that they can continue life in a peaceful and productive manner. It differs how one gives back – what matters is giving back!

Integrity vs Despair – Stage 8

This is the final stage of Erickson’s Psychosocial Development where the individual can either be happy with what they did in life or regret their decisions. It occurs in old age and can result in being confident and having a sense of integrity or despairing about what one has done.


This article described the stages of Erickson’s theory of psychosocial development by listing each stage and describing it in detail. It not only introduced the theory that outlines these stages but highlighted the outcome of each stage and how it should be tackled.

Frequently Asked Questions: Erickson’s 8 Psychosocial Stages of Development

How many stages are there in Erickson’s theory of psychosocial development?

There are 8 stages in Erickson’s theory of psychosocial development that last from infancy to old age.

How can an infant develop trust?

An infant can develop trust if they have a loving and attention giving caretaker who does not neglect them.

Who is Erickson?

Erickson is an American German psychologist who focused on how social events affect our development.


List of reasons for taking annual leave (7 best reasons)

In this blog post, we are going to discuss what is annual leave, some of the best reasons to take leave. We also learn about why taking annual leave is important, followed by some tips to bring a culture change to the workplace.

The 7 best reasons for taking an annual leave

Below are some of the best reasons for taking an annual leave:

  • Work-life balance is important
  • You need to spend some quality time with your loved ones
  • You have to take care of your physical or mental health.
  • It improves your productivity
  • You get to have new experiences
  • Gives you time to practice self-care
  • You need maternity or paternity leave.

What is annual leave?

Annual leave is paid period off work, granted by employers to staff to be used for whatever the employee desires. It varies amongst different companies based on the employer’s policies. The number of days included in this leave also depends on the policy of the company and the employee may have to give prior notice before taking a leave. 

When the employee sends their application for leave, it is necessary that they coordinate well with all the concerned departments, so that all the requirements can be arranged during the employee’s absence at work. 

Nowadays, the majority of companies have shown a great emphasis on providing paid leave to their workers/employees. Some companies consider it as a right and some might consider it as a perk.

Some common reasons to take annual leave

Work-life balance

Taking a break from work for a couple of days helps you in maintaining a work-life balance. It has multiple positive effects, such as low levels of stress, lower risk of burnout, positive wellbeing, etc. This is beneficial for both employees and employers.

It is believed that resting after work is important for better productivity and results. Work is not the only need that a man has in his life. Love, safety, food, etc, are also some of the other needs that they may desire. Referring to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, one needs to meet all the basic needs to meet their maximum potential.

Therefore, taking a break from work and spending some quality time alone or with family can help you maintain a work-life balance.

Spending time with loved ones

Taking time off with family and loved ones should be considered a top priority. Spending time with loved ones could be a good reason to take leave, as it helps to reduce stress levels. Being physically present with loved ones will provide you with emotional support and help you deal with stress effectively.

Everyone needs time off, and if you make an effort to spend that time with your loved ones it can improve your work-life. It gives you a sense of belongingness, boosts your motivation and increases productivity. You might feel happier while going to work.

Taking care of Mental and Physical health

To improve your mental and physical health you must take leave. Not only does it decrease your stress levels, but it also helps you become more creative, productive, and motivated. Taking a break can physically recharge you. If you have an injury or are facing some serious physical/mental health issue, you can ask for a break to recover.

You must not undervalue your annual leave. When employees are encouraged to take their annual leave entitlement, it prevents the onset of further complications in the development of a mental illness such as depression, anxiety, etc. 

Creating new memories and experiences

Taking leave to explore and make memories is very good for your health. A memory is something that you will be able to cherish forever, you can even share it with others. New experiences sometimes change you as a person, it can be an integral part of self-growth.

It changes your perception, how you look at things and deal with them. Memories can be passed on for generations, you can share them with your kids, grandkids, etc. They can be a source to make your life more meaningful. The experiencing-self wants to explore things and the remembering-self wants memories. They go hand-in-hand.

Maternity/Paternity leave

Maternity and Paternity leave is paid time off that an employee can take to care for their newborn or newly adopted child. Under maternity leave, the expecting mother gets a certain time off before and after the birth of the child. 

Paternity leaves are provided because a father needs to be emotionally and physically available for the mother as well as their child. The father is granted leave for a short period before and after the delivery of the child.

Maternity and Paternity leaves differ based on the country’s legislation and the company’s policies. Although, in most countries, parents are entitled to take maternity/paternity leave. It is essential for the development of their child.

Culture change at the workplace

Employees are entitled to annual leaves and companies must respect that. Contacting employees when they’re on break should be unacceptable unless it’s an emergency. 

HR Manager should provide all the employees with a live document that tracks everyone’s number of holidays. This way an employee can add his/her own list of holidays and see that others are taking holidays too. It acts as a reminder. HR should keep a track of the employee’s annual leave.

The company’s policy should be very open and clear so that the employee is aware of the organisation’s expectations and can plan their annual leave accordingly.  Employee feedback on the management and annual leave policy should always be taken into consideration for a smooth functioning work environment.


In this brief guide, we discussed what annual leave is, some common reasons for annual leave, and how to bring a culture change to the workplace. 

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs): List of reasons for annual leave

What is a good reason to take leave?

There are many reasons to take leave, but some of the most common reasons include taking care of your mental and physical health, spending time with loved ones, and bereavement leave can be considered a perfectly good reason to apply for annual leave.

Do I need to give a reason for annual leave?

Yes, you need to give a reason for annual leave. Your employer will consider your application for leave and decide to accept it or deny it based on the company’s annual leave policy. A prior application needs to be sent to the employer before taking annual leave.

Can annual leave be denied?

The employer can refuse an employee’s request for annual leave based on the company’s policy and the number of holidays that the employee has already taken. For instance, if an employee has taken 30 days off at work in total then the employer may deny their application or allow the employee to take unpaid leave.

How many days of annual leave are you entitled to?

In India, the law mandates a minimum of 15 days of annual leave. Although, the number of annual leave days can change depending upon the country’s laws and the organisation’s annual leave policy. The employer can also sometimes offer more, based on your contract with the company.

Can you cash out more than 2 weeks of annual leave?

The minimum annual leave is for 2 weeks anytime within 12 months, and the employee must be paid no less than they would have received if they hadn’t taken the leave. Basically, it’s paid leave. If you want to cash out more than 2 weeks of annual leave, it will have to be a completely separate agreement/contract with the organisation based on their terms.


Panascì, M. A. (2019). The right to paid annual leave as an EU fundamental social right. Comment on Bauer et al.: Joined Cases C-569/16 and C-570/16 Stadt Wuppertal v. Maria Elisabeth Bauer and Volker Willmeroth v. Martina Broßonn, EU: C: 2018: 871. Maastricht Journal of European and Comparative Law, 26(3), 441-448.

Time out – Don’t undervalue annual leave. (2019, May 21). Soma Health.

Why do brothers and sisters experiment? (5 reasons why)

In this blog post, we are going to discuss why brothers and sisters experiment. We distinguish normative sexual behaviours and problematic sexual behaviours amongst siblings, and also how they can lead to sexual assault and exploitation. At the end of this blog, you will also understand how professionals can help teens and adolescents understand what appropriate sexual behaviours are and how caregivers can help.

Why do brothers and sisters experiment?

One of the most common reasons why they experiment could be because of what they saw on television, or what they may have accidentally seen their parents or other family members do. People as children may experiment with their siblings because they are trying to learn and explore their idea of sexual identity.

Experimenting plays a huge role when it comes to learning about ourselves and our environment. It is commonly referred to as the “trial-and-error” process. Children may start experimenting as a result of curiosity, they are curious about gender and sexually related roles. 

It starts with children looking at each other’s private parts and wanting to explore them through touch. If they’re at a very young age, they hardly go beyond touching. Fondling and touching are the most common activities in all age categories. Although, sometimes it is more than just touching and fondling.

Normal Exploratory behaviour

Brothers and sisters experimenting within certain limits can be considered as normal sexual/exploratory behaviour. Such type includes behaviours that:

  • Happen on the spur of the moment and are intermittent.
  • It is agreed upon and neither of them is objecting to this behaviour.
  • The sole focus of their child play is not sex play and involves other interests and activities.
  • Neither of them feels strongly uncomfortable feelings such as anger, shame, fear, or anxiety.
  • The behaviour is not forced upon either of them
  • Usually decreases with appropriate child-rearing practices and caregiver interventions where the child learns how to stop such behaviour.

What is sex play?

Sex play often takes place amongst children who know each other well, are of the nearly same age and have the same abilities. It hardly ever occurs between children who do not know each other at all. Therefore, making brothers and sisters an example in this case because it often occurs between the same sex and could involve siblings. 

It is a common occurrence in childhood where children may show their private parts to each other and touch them in an exploratory way. Normative sexual behaviours and sex play do not include more adult-like sexual behaviours that go beyond touching. 

Brothers and sisters’ casual experiment which is normative can become problematic when it includes more advanced sex activities, and this may be defined as illegal by family or cultural norms or state/federal laws. It becomes problematic when these experiments and experiences are quite often, one-sided, and coercive. It leads to exploitation and sexual assault. And such sibling assault experiences are hardly ever reported or investigated. 

It may have started as casual sex play and turned into something coercive and one-sided. They might feel vulnerable, confused, insecure, and blame themselves for how things have turned out. It is difficult for a child/adolescent to talk about this with their parents or any other adult figure in their life. They may strongly feel uncomfortable or highly embarrassed, as they believe it is taboo.

Problematic Sexual behaviour

Problematic sexual experiments between brothers and sisters, or siblings/cousins of the same sex may be identified through a continuum – from typical to concerning, to problematic. 

These behaviours can be identified when you notice that these sexual acts occur frequently or more than frequently, there is a gap between the two of them (age-gap, developmental gap, intellectual gap, etc). You may also notice that there are strong/upset feelings, it is forceful by nature and may involve threats or aggression. Problematic sexual behaviours include actions such as:

  • Self-touch or self-stimulation that causes physical harm or damage, is very much excessive and occurs in public even after conducting interventions.
  • Frequently occurring sexual behaviours that include an obsession with nudity, pornography, sexting, covertly looking at others when they are naked, habitually showing private parts to others, etc.
  • Sexually touching, poking, rubbing, or squeezing someone without their permission.
  • Sexual interactions include digital-genital contact, oral-genital contact, involves penetration, etc. These interactions between brothers and sisters or siblings in general are considered to be developmentally inappropriate and illegal.
  • Coercive or aggressive sexual contact, sexual contact with animals, and distributing sexual images through texting.

Such problematic behaviours can lead to sexual exploitation and sexual assault. These problematic behaviours don’t need to be always caused by having been sexually abused. Although, sexual abuse and violence between siblings are more common than people know of or talk about. It is underreported and parents may sometimes not know how to deal with it even after it is reported.

What is Sibling Sexual Abuse?

Sibling Sexual Abuse (SSA) involves a brother and sister, two sisters or two brothers. The most common form of SSA takes place between older brothers abusing younger sisters. People are generally very close to their siblings and due to the close relationship and physical proximity between siblings, sibling sexual abuse is considered to be an opportunistic form of abuse. 

The problematic behaviours mentioned above are commonly seen in abusive siblings. On the other hand, siblings who are victims or have been abused do not usually disclose their experiences because they fear not being believed, fear upsetting parents, and are confused about their role in the abuse. 

Some common factors that lead to sibling sexual abuse are as follows:

  • An age gap of 4 or more years between the siblings.
  • Coercion and Violence (forced sexual acts).
  • Developmentally inappropriate sexual behaviours.
  • Problematic sexual behaviours.
  • Availability and duration – which refers to siblings living in the same house, therefore, are always physically available to being abused.
  • Intellectual and physical disability
  • Gender gap.

Sibling sexual abuse can often induce trauma-related symptoms such as intrusion, hyper-arousal, disassociation. It also leads to feelings of insecurity, lower self-esteem, mental health and adjustment issues into adulthood, and parenting issues. It may also impact families and their relations with one another. 

Therapeutic interventions, sex education, and seeking help from a professional or someone you trust can help you avoid being sexually exploited, or engaging in problematic sexual experiences between siblings.

Therapeutic interventions and guidelines for caregivers

Educating yourself about sexual habits/practices, appropriate behaviours, and consent is very important. Therapeutic interventions or even interventions provided by care-givers can help you have an understanding of sexual development. Parents and caregivers should seek help with interventions from mental health professionals who know about sexual development, childhood and adolescent development, and research-based interventions. 

While conducting these interventions, mental health professionals often look at environmental conditions of the child or youth, parenting style, family values and attitudes, social factors, etc. Each brother and sister experiment or siblings experiment experience is different. The treatment and intervention may vary from case to case. 

Two major and commonly practised research-based therapies are Trauma-Focused-Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (TF-CBT) and Problematic Sexual Behaviour-Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (PSB-CBT).

Certain guidelines for caregivers include:

  • Parents can get behaviour training to be able to prevent or respond to problematic sexual behaviours and other behaviour related issues.
  • Psychological and emotional changes should be emphasized upon, during the child’s development.
  • Debunking myths and misconceptions regarding problematic sexual behaviours and their implications on the child.
  • Communication about sexual behaviour and development is necessary. Rather than avoiding these topics, healthy communication can help.
  • Supporting their children when they use coping and decision-making skills.

Presenting information on delicate topics like these calmly will help the child understand the concept in a better way and the child will feel less awkward. Children feel easier to seek help when they know they can trust you and talk to you about it openly. 


In this brief guide, we discussed why brothers and sisters experiment, what are normative sexual behaviours and problematic sexual behaviours. We also learned about what is sex play and how sometimes it can turn into sibling sexual abuse. Towards the end, therapeutic interventions were discussed and we gave some guidelines for caregivers to keep in mind when child-rearing practices come into play. Please reach out with any questions or comments about this article or related subject matter.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs): Brothers and sisters experimenting

How common is it for brothers and sisters to experiment?

A UK-based study shows that most commonly 10% of males and 15% of females have been involved or have experienced and/or experimented with some type of intimate contact with their siblings. The most common behaviour in such type includes the stroking of genitalia. 

The intimate attraction between siblings or cousins who are related is very uncommon in most cases, due to a hypothesis known as Westermarck Impact, people who are living together through their initial developmental years may become desensitised to each other where sexual interaction is concerned. 

Although, it is also known that family members who are separated at birth may feel intimate attraction, as they have always lived apart.

It is also possible that brothers and sisters who live separate or rarely see each other, may develop such an attraction, and also in the case of step-siblings where the parent is not the same.

Are sisters attracted to their brothers?

There are several cases observed when sisters do feel attracted to their brothers, but this is not always the case. As mentioned above, brothers and sisters sometimes when they live separately, grow apart, and later when they meet there is a chance they may feel attracted towards each other. Sometimes the reason behind this could be that they think they understand each other well because they have similar traits, which may make them believe that they have found their ideal partner.

Why am I sexually attracted to my brother?

Experiencing arousal and desire at a very young age is normal as we humans are sexual beings, (most of the time). Our body is naturally designed to feel such attractions. Brothers are often the first members of the opposite sex that sisters come across, which is why there are chances to develop sexual curiosities about them.

Although, your feelings will not necessarily last a lifetime, and you can get rid of them. You need to become aware of your feelings and let yourself get over them politely in an unhindered manner. 

Can siblings marry?

Marriages amongst cousins are legal in most countries, avunculate marriages are also legal in many countries. But sexual relationships are considered incestuous and taboo or illegal almost universally. Sibling marriages are illegal in most countries around the world, but sometimes siblings do get married, and in society, they are frowned upon as it is considered incest and taboo. Society never accepts such marriages. 

Does incest cause birth defects?

Yes, incest can cause birth defects. Incest or inbreeding in humans can cause an increase in the risk of disorders that are caused by recessive genes. This happens because incest leads to homozygosity, and the offspring can get affected by deleterious traits. The biological fitness of the offspring can be compromised in this case. It also leads to deformities, certain congenital defects, and genetic diseases.


Adler, N. A., & Schutz, J. (1995). Sibling incest offenders. Child Abuse & Neglect19(7), 811-819.

Interventions for children and youth with sexual behavior challenges. (n.d.). VLS.

National center on the sexual behavior of youth. (n.d.). National Center on the Sexual Behavior of Youth.

National center on the sexual behavior of youth. (n.d.). National Center on the Sexual Behavior of Youth.

Stathopoulos, M. (2012). Sibling sexual abuse. Australian Institute of Family Studies.

Tiwari, D. (2019, September 26). I experimented with my brother (5 things to do next). Optimist Minds.

Tiwari, D. (2020, September 16). How common is it for brothers and sisters to experiment? (A guide). PsychReel.