Hypomania (A complete guide)

This blog will be talking about the definition of hypomania, the definition of mania, the contents of a manic episode, the symptoms of mania, the symptoms of hypomania, manic behaviour, mania in bipolar disorder, signs of mania, the difference between mania and hypomania, the behaviour when in mania, and the treatment for these episodes.

What is Hypomania?

Hypomania is a mood episode where the symptoms of mania apply but this episode makes the patient more productive than that made by mania. This episode tends to last for only a few days, such as four days. This episode allows the person to be more proactive in life and doesn’t seem to show a mental disorder unless the patient has been considered to be an opposite character to this mood such as introversion.

This kind of episode is a symptom of bipolar II disorder. Bipolar II disorder is a mood disorder that is characterized by at least one hypomanic episode and one depressive episode. The hypomanic episode has the symptoms of a manic episode where the person is excessively euphoric. The patient will also feel like they can do anything and will apply to many activities but without delusions and hallucinations in a manic episode.


Mania is a mood episode that is described as an overjoyed mood where the patient may feel that he/she has boundless energy. Mania is a symptom of bipolar I disorder. Bipolar I disorder is a mood disorder where the diagnosis will only be met when the patient has experienced at least one manic episode and a depressive episode. As mentioned before, mania has similar symptoms of hypomania but without risk-taking behaviours and psychotic symptoms of a manic episode.

A manic episode can make a person believe that he/she can do anything without the need to know about restrictions and limitations of the person. The person believes that he/she is a hero where there is no feeling of weakness. The person may also be described as someone in a happy mood but this mood is not a normal expression of happiness. The person may also engage in risky behaviours such as casual sex encounters, over-spending in malls, get into fights with street gangs, and jump on a running vehicle in the course of a manic episode.


A manic episode is another name for an episode of mania. Manic depression was the name before the bipolar disorder was made the name of this mental disorder. Manic episodes make patients have racing thoughts and fast speech. This can make listeners of the affected patients be annoyed and interrupt the patient from their fast conversation.

This may make patients get irritable about the listener’s disenchanted response. A manic episode can make a person highly optimistic. This kind of episode can also make the person have high self-confidence in his/her abilities and this confidence was not formidable in the person’s character. You can learn more about manic episodes by buying this book on this website.

Manic episode

A manic episode is a mood episode that is characterized by a happy and excited mood. This kind of episode may make the affected patient to not being able to function properly in life. This is because this kind of episode includes the symptom of risk-taking behaviours such as over-spending saved money for things that don’t matter to the patient and having unsafe sex with multiple partners. These kinds of behaviours are what makes these affected patients get into a psychiatrist or psychologist in the first place.

Some of these affected patients may be caught by the police since some risk-taking behaviours may be robbing a bank. This kind of episode usually lasts for weeks which disturbs the loved ones of the patient who is suffering the consequences of an uncontrollable episode. These affected patients may have racing thoughts which makes them talk to people at faster speeds. These affected patients may also become aggressive to people who find their behaviours annoying and disturbing.


A hyper manic episode is a kind of manic episode that is permanent. This means that a patient who is having this episode will be more likely to be in a euphoric mood for the rest of his or her life. This also means that risk-taking behaviours in this kind of episode will be plenty considering that this is permanent. This is not considered as a disorder in the DSM-5 but another term used by medical practitioners to mood disorders not otherwise specified.

This kind of diagnosis is reached when the patient’s symptoms do not reach the minimum criteria for mood disorders. Patients who have this episode tend to not sleep at all and move around when they want to. Most women are diagnosed with this kind of mental condition. You can read about a person with this kind of mental condition by buying this book on this website.

Mania definition

Mania is defined as the extreme high in the mood disorder of bipolar disorder. This kind of episode can be described as an extremely euphoric mood. These affected patients tend to be filled with heavy bouts of joy. Joy is not the only emotion that is in this episode but also irritability in some patients on this episode.

These affected patients tend to not eat. This is because these affected patients are more inclined to move around. These affected patients have a hard time only sitting all the time. These affected people also have large amounts of new ideas that are not stopping in creating more of these ideas.

Define mania

Mania is defined as a kind of mood that is described as a mood filled with full energy. This kind of mood is also characterized by irritability to most male patients who are diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Patients who are having this mood will feel more confident in doing activities that they have never done before. Patients who are affected by this kind of mood are more likely to get distracted to several ideas and conversations they are encountering. 

Sometimes, less degree of mood is felt in between this kind of episode. This is because this kind of episode is not considered as a permanent episode since this kind of episode only lasts for a week. The appearance of this kind of episode is not expected by the affected patient. You can read a story about a patient who was diagnosed with bipolar disorder with mania as a dominant mood by buying this book on this website

Mania symptoms

Various symptoms of mania make this kind of mood to the depressive episode in bipolar disorder. These symptoms have a physical and psychological kind. Most of the time, the psychological symptoms are usually felt by affected patients under this kind of mood which makes most patients want to keep having this kind of mood.

The diagnosis of this mood can also be reached by the observation of loved ones. This is true if the patient has been considered to act differently before this kind of mood happened to the patient. For instance, a rational and inhibitory person may become illogical and overactive in this kind of mood. Here are the specific symptoms of this kind of mood in bipolar disorder.

  • A sense of self-importance
  • Ideas tend to change from one subject to another subject
  • Has more energy than the normal energy seen
  • Full of ideas and positive thoughts
  • More extraverted than the normal character
  • Has difficulty in concentrating

Manic episodes

Manic episodes are symptoms of bipolar I disorder. Bipolar I disorder is the kind of bipolar disorder that needs to have at least 1 manic episode and 1 depressive episode. These manic episodes tend to last for a week and may cause danger to the client’s community. This is because the client may feel that the mood can’t be controlled and may do dangerous behaviours such as rape and murder which can lead to imprisonment. 

Hypomania symptoms

The symptoms of hypomania are the same as manic symptoms. This is because these two moods are associated with each other. The difference with both these moods is that hypomania is milder than mania. Hypomania also makes the affected patient more productive than a patient in a mania. Also, hypomania is a mood requirement for a diagnosis of bipolar II disorder.

This kind of bipolar disorder needs at least one hypomanic episode and one depressive episode. Hypomania can be detected in a patient when the patient acts as a different character before this mood disorder started. This can be verified by reports of loved ones of the patient, especially parents and close friends. Without further ado, here are the following symptoms of hypomania.

  • Seems to have high energy
  • Is overly optimistic
  • Tends to get a lot of jobs to do which the patient can or can’t do it all
  • Has slight irritability
  • Does not engage in risk-taking behaviours such as over-spending and casual sex

Hypomania meaning

The meaning of hypomania is the mood of less mania. This is because this kind of mania is a sub-portion of the umbrella term which is mania. This means that hypomania is a kind of mania that is not too severe as mania. As mentioned before, mania includes risk-taking behaviours but hypomania doesn’t have these kinds of behaviours as symptoms.

Manic behaviour

Manic behaviour tends to be overly excited behaviour. Patients who are in this kind of mood episode will become more talkative than before. This talkative character will be seen as moving in and off-topic because of the flight of ideas in the patient’s mind. This flight of ideas makes patients think about many different topics that can run through their minds all day without stopping. 

This can make patients have sleepless nights since these ideas make the patient move around. This can also make patients irritable when they say these kinds of ideas to another person and finds the person’s disinterest on what they are saying. The patient may also engage in unhealthy behaviours such as binge-eating and smoking. These kinds of behaviours can lead to more of these kinds of episodes that will continue causing distress upon the person.

Mania meaning

The meaning of mania is the kind of mood that is the enthusiastic mood in bipolar disorder. This kind of mood episode is the opposite of depressive episode in this kind of mood disorder. People who are in this episode are quick in moving anywhere they can. These people are more likely to be energetic in any situation despite the person’s usual reservations for a kind of situation. 

Psychotic symptoms are rampant in this mood episode. These symptoms are not seen in patients with hypomania. This mood episode can make people go through big decisions without thinking. These big decisions will only serve to cause stress upon the patient who is in a manic episode. These people have overconfidence in their abilities that they get irritable when other people don’t believe in their beliefs.

Bipolar mania

Mania in bipolar I disorder can cause significant dysfunction in one’s life. This can cause the patient distress at work when the person feels their thoughts are racing at ever minute. This can cause mistakes in doing different records at work. Speech is also disrupted with these people since different topics can be very influential to come out to speak out despite the patient is holding a meeting with the employer on a status report.

What is a manic episode

A manic episode is an expansive mood that makes the person feel deviant to his or her community, cause danger in the community, distressed about the mood, and dysfunction in work, school, and social life. This kind of episode can make people feel more motivated to reach their goals. This episode doesn’t need to be the first episode felt by the patient in the duration of bipolar I disorder. This episode can happen before and after a depressive episode in this kind of bipolar disorder.

These people may also tend to do a lot of projects and doing none of them. Some patients may finish these projects all day long without any need for rest. This doesn’t mean that people with these symptoms may have a debilitating manic episode. The mood episode should be able to cause the patient significant distress, danger, deviance, and dysfunction in different areas in life.

Hypomanic definition

Hypomanic is what is labelled on a person who may have symptoms of mania but these kinds of symptoms are less severe. This kind of episode does not cause significant distress to the patient. This kind of episode doesn’t cause significant dysfunction in the patient’s important areas in life such as school, work, or social life. This kind of episode can make the person more creative and powerful than not having this kind of state which makes the patient miss taking medication only to be in this kind of state.

Hypomania definition

Hypomania is the kind of mood that is described to be productive and cheerful. This kind of episode makes people want to complete their work all day long and not feel tired. This kind of episode is more than the normal mood of the patient but does not create severe side effects, unlike in a manic episode. People in this kind of episode will become more confident and important than they were before. 

This kind of mood episode can happen on its own. This is different from a manic episode which must occur in patients with bipolar I disorder. This means that a person can have a hypomanic episode even when not having the Symptoms of bipolar disorder. You can learn more about this kind of episode and how to manage this episode by buying this book on this website.

Manic episode symptoms

The symptoms of the manic episode are characterized by an enthusiastic and joyous mood. The duration of this kind of episode should last at least a week to be considered as the diagnosis of this kind of episode. This elevated mood can be observed by loved ones who have known the patient for a long time to consider the patient’s mood as this kind of episode. Here are the symptoms of a manic episode.

  • Difficulties in maintaining attention
  • Extreme involvement in pleasurable activities
  • Motivated to make new goals that may not be completed by the patient
  • Has caused personal distress in the patient’s life
  • Has less need to sleep or eat

Manic vs hypomanic

Differences between a manic episode and hypomanic episode have been found by researchers who have focused their attention on the diagnosis of bipolar disorder. A hypomanic episode can be treated by changes in lifestyle alone, unlike a manic episode. A manic episode is more severe than a hypomanic episode. Patients who are undergoing a manic episode are more likely to get institutionalized than patients who are experiencing a hypomanic episode.

A manic episode can cause more significant distress to the patient than a patient with a hypomanic episode. Manic episodes have psychotic symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations than hypomanic episodes. In diagnosing the patient for a manic episode, the person’s mood episode should last for a week. A hypomanic episode tends to last for only 4 days.

Signs of mania

The signs of mania can be detected once the person knows the symptoms of this mood episode. The diagnosis of this kind of episode can be made if the patient has experienced three or more symptoms of this kind of episode. Mood changes will be a dominant sign of this kind of episode to loved ones since they know the patient more than most people who may see this patient. Changes in energy levels are also observed in these patients who are experiencing this kind of episode.

What does mania mean

Mania is an abnormal euphoric mood state. People who are in this kind of state will face extreme insomnia since these people will feel that they have no need for sleep. This is because people can’t control themselves when they’re in this kind of state. People who are undergoing this kind of episode will be more extraverted and loud in speaking.

These people are also prone to poor judgment. This can lead these people to feel to create poor choices which is one of the reasons why this kind of state can cause severe dysfunction in life. This kind of state can be combined with a depressive state and this kind of condition is called mixed mania. You can learn more about mixed mania by buying this book on this website

Manic bipolar episode

The manic episode in bipolar disorder is the high felt by the patient, unlike the incoming depressive episode. The patient will feel that thoughts are speeding in his or her head. The patient may behave in inappropriate ways in this kind of episode. The patient may feel increased sexual arousal which can lead to many unsafe and casual sexual experiences with strangers.

Mania and hypomania

Mania and hypomania are two of the euphoric mood episodes in the two kinds of bipolar disorder. Mania is a euphoric mood that is characterized by severe behaviour that may cause the patient to be hospitalized or penalized by the police force. Hypomania is also a euphoric mood but this kind of mood is not severe enough to cause the patient’s hospitalization. This kind of episode may even lead the patient to function better in life.

Both of these mood episodes can be found in schizoaffective disorder. This kind of disorder is a psychotic kind of disorder where mood episodes can also happen. Mania occurs in patients who are diagnosed with bipolar I disorder. While hypomania occurs in patients who have bipolar II disorder.

What is manic

Manic is the behaviour of a person in a manic episode. This episode is characterized by high energy and reckless behaviour. People who are in this episode tend to have less need for sleep since they feel they can do anything for a whole day. These people also tend to cause distress on other people due to their grandiose delusions and irritability.

Manic feeling

The feeling of a manic episode is an exhilarating feeling. This is because of the person who thinks that he or she cannot be stopped by anyone. These people often find this episode to make them better people. This is why most patients don’t take their medications to treat the symptoms of this episode. 

This feeling also makes them highly productive on the goals they want to accomplish in life. This makes them lose their sleeping hours for the making of these goals. These people also tend to be irritable if people start getting in their way. This episode cannot be easily controlled by people since this episode may arise from the lack of emotion regulation.

Whats mania

Mania is the high episode in bipolar I disorder. This kind of episode will swing from this kind of high mood to the low mood of depression. Most people who have this mood disorder tend to have this kind of episode for a week. This episode may also last for 4 days if the mood swings are regularly shifting.

Mania disorder

Mania in bipolar I disorder has more observable symptoms than hypomania. This is because this kind of episode tends to make people do behaviours that can create legal consequences for them. For instance, a patient may cause rape to another person during this episode. This can cause the patient to be punished even if the patient was only experiencing a dysregulation of mood.

The patient may also appear to have a lot to say in the conversation. Listeners may see them as an annoyance since they can’t stop talking. This can lead to the patient getting angry at the listener for insulting his or her behaviour. This may lead to the patient engaging in dangerous fights with people who may try to bring the patient to justice in the court.

Manic laughter

The laughter in people who are having a manic episode is described as inappropriate to the situation. This is because people who are having this episode tend to laugh unexpectedly. This can happen when an idea is compulsive to the patient and needs to be released. This symptom can also make these patients diagnosed with a psychotic disorder.

Hypomania treatment

Different kinds of treatment are available for patients with this kind of mood episode. Medications that stabilize mood are the first kind of treatment used for these patients. This is because the patient can respond to therapy better if they weren’t in a hyper mood. An example of this medication is lithium which is usually prescribed for the healing of this mood episode.

Home remedies can also be used to alleviate symptoms of this mood episode. The patient should have a regular and healthy diet to give enough nutrients for the brain to minimize the mood dysregulation that causes this mood episode. Exercise can also alleviate the symptoms of this mood episode. The patient who had enough sleep will save himself or herself from this mood episode.


Hypomania is a kind of mood episode in bipolar II disorder that is described with productivity and hyper mood. This kind of mood episode and mania are similar in symptoms but mania has more severe symptoms such as engaging in risky behaviours. Treatments are used to alleviate symptoms of this kind of mood episode and get the patient away from emotional distress. You can comment below on your thoughts about this kind of mood episode and share your experiences with this kind of mood episode.

FAQ Questions

What are the examples of hypomania?

The examples of hypomania are increased sexual desire and extreme irritability and anger in patients.

What is a mild form of bipolar called?

The mild form of bipolar is called cyclothymia.

What is type 3 bipolar?

Type 3 bipolar is the non-medical term of cyclothymia.

Is Bipolar 1 or 2 worse?

The bipolar I disorder is worse than the bipolar II disorder since a full manic episode is present in this kind of bipolar disorder.

What are the signs of bipolar in women?

The signs of bipolar in women are the same as men such as extremely irritable mood, grandiose delusions, suicidal tendencies, and risky behaviours.


Avon and Wiltshire Mental Health Partnership. (n. d.). Hypomania and mania. Retrieved from here.

Bipolar UK. (n. d.). Bipolar and the “allure of mania”. Retrieved from here.

Bupa UK. (n. d.). Bipolar disorder. Retrieved from here.

Cogora Limited. (2018, June). ‘A complete personality change’ – managing bipolar disorder. Retrieved from here.

Crown. (2019, March). Symptoms Bipolar Disorder. NHS. Retrieved from here.

Knott, L. (2017, August). Bipolar Disorder. Patient. Retrieved from here.

Mental Health Foundation. (2019, May). Bipolar disorder. Retrieved from here.

Mental Health Foundation. (n. d.). Mental Health Statistics: bipolar. Retrieved from here.

Mental Health UK. (n. d.). Symptoms of bipolar disorder. Retrieved from here.

Mind. (2016, August). Hypomania and mania. Retrieved from here.

Rethink Mental Illness. (n. d.). Bipolar Disorder. Retrieved from here.Warner, H. (2013, March). Bipolar mum: ‘It was as if someone stole our mother’. Dailymail. Retrieved from here.

INITIATIVE VS GUILT (A complete guide)

This article will briefly describe “Initiative vs. Guilt”, Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development, how children take and develop initiative, how children develop guilt, why balance is essential and what are the negative outcomes in initiative vs. guilt. 


Erik Erikson has given the theory of psychosocial development in which the third stage is Initiative vs. Guilt. According to Erikson’s theory, the first two stages of children’s development are trust vs. mistrust and autonomy vs. shame, in these two stages, the main focus was the children working on the conflicts and forming a sense of trust in the world as well as feelings of independence and autonomy. 

When the children entered the preschool years, they enter the third stage of psychosocial development which is initiative vs. guilt. If the children successfully complete the earlier two stages then the kids have a sense of trust, the world is trustworthy and they are able to act independently. Now, it is the time that they learn to exert power to themselves and the world. This is the time when they try their things on their own and explore their own abilities and by doing this they can develop ambition and direction.


Erik Erikson was a German-American developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst who has given the psychosocial development theory which explains human development throughout life via social interactions. Each stage has a psychosocial conflict that the children if successfully pass they move towards another stage. The following are the 8 stages:

  1. Trust Mistrust- Birth to 1 and ½ years old
  2. Autonomy vs. Shame- 1 ½ to 3 years old
  3. Initiative vs. Guilt- 3 to 5 years old
  4. Industry vs. Inferiority- 5 to 12 years old
  5. Ego Identity vs. Role Confusion- 12 to 18 years old
  6. Intimacy vs. Isolation- 18 to 40 years old
  7. Generativity vs. Stagnation- 40 to 65 years old
  8. Ego Integrity vs. Despair- 65 years old and beyond

Stage 3- Initiative vs. Guilt 

Initiative versus Guilt is the 3rd stage of Erik Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development. It occurs between the ages of three to five years old and which according to Erikson refers to the “play ages”. In this stage, children spend time with other children, they spend their time playing and developing their interpersonal skills.

When children play, they begin to take initiative and may attempt to feel out leadership roles and actions, this is known as the beginning of an initiative. The guilt comes into action when children make mistakes while trying to initiate and while navigating these positions. The children learn the art of cooperating without being aggressive and bossy via trial and error. Guilt or shame is considered as the feeling of the children- caring and respect towards others and choosing to do what is considered to be right. This might have some negative effect as well as it can also cause a child to avoid trying to take initiative and lead others.


Children in this stage according to their age learn how to begin asserting control and power by taking initiative in playing games, making decisions and leading other children. They face challenges in this stage as well and in this stage, it is important for the caregivers or parents to encourage their children to explore and help other children in making appropriate choices. If the parents of the caregivers fail in encouraging their children then their children develop feelings of being ashamed of themselves and eventually they become dependent upon others.

In this stage, the children are seen to be taking initiative and exploring their ways in developing their interpersonal skills, while it is also possible that it might become frustrating for parents and caregivers as the children begin to control the things that impact their lives. Although, for children in this stage, play and imagination play an important role in this stage. They make their own games and they may also suggest that the group plays at all. They not only practice initiative but also try and develop their leadership skills as well.


In Erikson’s Psychosocial stage 3, children often seem aggressive. They work on their subtleties in getting others to cooperate without being bossy or aggressive. These children don’t have the maturity of choosing appropriate games or roles for themselves and others. They tend to make mistakes and these mistakes might develop guilt in the child.

Developing an initiative in this stage takes place when the child interacts with another child. It also opens to the feelings of guilt and this guilt can lead to healthy outcomes, like caring for others’ feelings and focusing on what is considered right. The guilt might make the child avoid trying to start new games or lead others and take new challenges. 


The balance between the initiative and guilt is very important, initiative without guilt can be harmful as well as guilt without initiative may make the child in withdrawing himself from others. It is essential for the parents and caregivers to subtle the situation and helps their children in finding the proper balance between the two. Parents must encourage their children to explore the possibilities.

The parents must point out the mistakes of the children and give solutions for the next time, the main thing is mistakes must be corrected and it should not be considered to be “bad”, as children are in their exploration stage. It is easy to take on guilt and shame for the things that never was the intention to carry. It also focuses on the parents as if the child asks his parents and they don’t reply appropriately then the child might feel guilty of bothering his parents as well.

The child needs to feel some form of guilt but only when necessary to control themselves. A child if interrupts and asks something, then a level of shame or guilt is necessary in order to realize that these actions might have negative social effects.


If initiative vs. guilt goes wrong the child goes out of balance in one way or another. They either may become guilt-ridden, become isolated from society or even may become emotionally fragile. And it is also possible that they may become pushy and even aggressive. They may doubt their ability to take actions and therefore, they may stop taking any initiative in return. It is also possible, that they may selfishly disregard the feelings of other people.


This blog has briefly described “Initiative vs. Guilt”, Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development, how children take and develop initiative, how children develop guilt, why balance is essential and what are the negative outcomes in initiative vs. guilt. Please feel free to leave a comment or a suggestion, we appreciate your time.


What age is initiative vs guilt?

Initiative versus guilt is the 3rd stage of Erikson’s Psychosocial Development and its age group is children between 3 to 5 years old.

What is an example of initiative versus guilt?

An example of initiative versus guilt is that the child in his pre-school years takes initiative to play games, lead others and take challenges, etc. 

What are the 8 stages of life according to Erikson?

The 8 stages of life according to Erikson are- Trust vs Mistrust, Autonomy vs Shame, Initiative vs Guilt, Industry vs Guilt, Industry vs Inferiority, Identity vs Role Confusion, Intimacy vs Isolation, Generativity vs Stagnation, and Integrity vs Despair.

What happens during Initiative vs guilt?

Initiative vs guilt is the 3rd stage of Erikson’s psychosocial development, in this stage children assert themselves more frequently, through this either the child learns how to take initiative or develop a sense of guilt. 

Why is Erikson’s theory important?

Erikson’s theory is important because it provides a broad framework to view development throughout the entire lifespan and it also emphasizes the influence of the social relationship on the overall development.




Insomnia (A 7 point guide)

Insomnia is a sleep disorder bringing persistent difficulties with falling, and staying, asleep.

What is insomnia?

Insomnia is a sleep disorder that is characterized by having difficulty falling and/ or staying asleep. People with this condition usually have difficulty falling asleep, wake up often during the night, and have trouble going back to sleep. The condition can be short-term (acute) or can last a long time (chronic). It may also come and go. Acute insomnia lasts from one night to a few weeks. Insomnia is chronic when it happens at least three nights a week for three months or more.

Acute insomnia lasts from one night to a few weeks. 

What are the different types of insomnia?

Primary insomnia: This means your sleep problems aren’t linked to any other health condition or problem.

Secondary insomnia: This means you have trouble sleeping because of a health condition like asthma, depression, arthritis, cancer or heartburn, or some other contributor like pain, medication or substance use (e.g. alcohol).

What are the signs and symptoms of insomnia?

Symptoms of insomnia include sleepiness or drowsiness during the day, fatigue, grumpiness and problems with concentration or memory.

Other things which point to insomnia are trouble falling asleep in the first place, failure to sleep through the night, waking up earlier than usual and irritability.

Insomnia itself can often be a symptom of another problem. You should call your doctor if you experience disturbed sleep for more than a month without an apparent cause. Also if you never seem to get enough sleep or fall asleep suddenly during the day. 

If you have sleep medication that is no longer working, or you have been taking medication for more than a few nights with no discernible success you should also seek out a medical professional.

Stress like a job loss or change of role can cause primary insomnia.

How is insomnia diagnosed?

Once symptoms have been reported as above, which could indicate a sleep disorder, sleep disorder specialists can use sleep disorder tests to investigate the problem. A doctor would perform a physical exam, then take a medical and sleep history. During the exam the doctor would be looking for any medical or psychological ailment that may be contributing to the lack of sleep. For example, they may ask about chronic snoring, or sleep apnea. You may be asked whether you are suffering from anxiety, depression or any other potential cause for your sleeplessness.

Tests used to diagnose insomnia can include:

• sleep diary – tracking sleep patterns over a period of time

• Epworth sleepiness scale – a validated questionnaire that is used to assess daytime sleepiness

• polysomnogram – a test which measures activity during sleep

• actigraphy – a small, watch-sized instrument worn on the wrist to assess sleep/wake patterns over time

• mental health exam – since insomnia can be directly connected with depression, anxiety or another mental health disorder.

What are the causes of insomnia?

Causes of primary insomnia include:

• stress related to big life events, like a job loss or change of role

• the death of a loved one

• divorce or moving house

• things around you like noise, light, or temperature changes

• changes to your sleep schedule like jet lag, a new shift at work, or bad habits you picked up when you had other sleep problems.

Causes of secondary insomnia include:

• mental health issues like depression and anxiety

• medications for colds, allergies, depression, high blood pressure or asthma

• pain or discomfort at night

• caffeine, tobacco or alcohol

• hyperthyroidism and other endocrine problems

• other sleep disorders, like sleep apnea or restless legs syndrome.

Secondary insomnia can be caused by mental health issues.

How is insomnia treated?

It is possible your doctor will refer you to a sleep disorder specialist. Sleep patterns can be monitored either at home or in a controlled environment and anomalies can point to an underlying sleep disorder.

Behavioral therapy is another approach your doctor may pursue. This would be conducted by a psychologist, psychiatrist or other medical professional with specialized training. Several visits would usually be required to learn and implement the techniques of specific behavioral therapies. Some of the more common behavioral approaches include:

• stimulus control, which trains people to use their bed and bedroom for sleep and sexual activity only. Persons with insomnia are encouraged to go to another room and engage in a relaxing activity, such as reading a book or meditating, until they are sleepy and ready to return to bed.

• cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), which is conducted with a therapist who helps the patient examine and process attitudes and beliefs that may contribute to poor sleep

• relaxation training, which often involves reducing tension and muscular relaxation techniques

• hypnotherapy, which can transform a person into a deep state of relaxation, and also teach self-hypnosis techniques to self-relax

• over-the-counter (OTC) or prescription sleep aids may also help with insomnia. Medications differ by dose and duration of action. Most individuals take sleep aids for a few nights or a few weeks at a time. OTC sleep aids are available at your local pharmacy. 

Bed and bedroom should be used for sleep and sex only.

Frequently asked questions (FAQs) about insomnia:

1. What is the main cause of insomnia?

There are several potential causes of insomnia. These include stress, concerns about school, work, health, finances or family. These things can keep your mind active at night which makes it difficult to sleep. Stressful life events or trauma, including the death or illness of a loved one, divorce, or job loss, can also lead to the development of insomnia. Underlying health issues or mental disturbance can also be triggers.

2. How can I stop my insomnia?

Tips for improving insomnia include the following:

• wake up at the same time each day

• eliminate alcohol and stimulants such as nicotine and caffeine

• limit naps during the daytime

• exercise regularly

• limit stimulating activities in bed such as the use of electronic devices

• limit eating or drinking right before bedtime

• make your sleep environment as comfortable and relaxing as possible.

3. How do I know if I have insomnia?

You may have insomnia if you experience any of the following symptoms: 

• difficulty falling asleep

• difficulty staying asleep

• waking up during the night and having trouble returning to sleep

• waking up too early in the morning

• waking up feeling unrested or unrefreshed (non-restorative sleep)

• fatigue or low energy

• cognitive impairment, such as difficulty concentrating.

4. Can you die from insomnia?

In an extremely rare number of cases, chronic insomnia has been a direct cause of death. People who have the genetic disease called fatal familial insomnia (FFI) develop symptoms of exhaustion, dementia and coma and will eventually die. 

5. What foods cause insomnia?

Food and drink that can cause insomnia and anxiety include the following:

• caffeine

• alcohol

• nightshades (potatoes, tomatoes, eggplant, peppers and gogi berries)

• aged, fermented, smoked, cured or cultured foods such as salami, cheese, sauerkraut or red wine

• sugar, flour and other refined carbohydrates.

6. Is insomnia a sign of cancer?

Insomnia itself is not a sign of cancer. The risk of insomnia increases with age and with serious illnesses such as cancer. Insomnia can also worsen other cancer-related conditions such as pain, fatigue, depression or anxiety. 

7. What helps you sleep with insomnia?

Melatonin, which is a natural chemical produced by the body, can be taken as supplements to help with symptoms of insomnia. If you are a night owl which a natural tendency to go to bed later and wake up later than others, melatonin may be an effective treatment for insomnia. Valerian may also be an effective treatment for insomnia. Valerian is a herb with mild sedative effects and thus may help you fall asleep and stay asleep better.  

8. Is insomnia a mental illness?

Insomnia is not a mental illness itself, however it is a common symptom of many mental disorders such as anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). 

9. What will happen if insomnia is not treated?

If insomnia is left untreated, it can increase the risk for developing anxiety, depression, and heart failure. Insomnia that is not treated will also perpetuate the daytime symptoms of fatigue, trouble concentrating and mood disturbances. 

10. Is insomnia a sign of a brain tumor?

Insomnia itself is not a sign of a brain tumor, however sleep-wake disturbances often occur in patients with brain tumors. 

11. Can insomnia be a sign of something serious?

Insomnia in itself, with no other indications or diagnoses, is unlikely to be a sign of a more serious condition. Conversely, serious conditions can be a cause of insomnia. Examples of medical conditions that can be accompanied by insomnia are:

• nasal/ sinus allergies

• gastrointestinal problems such as reflux

• endocrine problems such as hyperthyroidism

• arthritis

• asthma

• neurological conditions such as Parkinson’s disease

• chronic pain

• low back pain.

12. How do I get checked for insomnia?

There is no definitive test for insomnia. Doctors use many different tools to examine, measure and diagnose insomnia which will involve a lot of questions, filling in diaries and questionnaires, examining sleep patterns over a period of time, blood tests and possibly an overnight sleep study.

Want to learn more about how to tackle insomnia? Try these books!

End the Insomnia Struggle: A Step-by-Step Guide to Help You Get to Sleep and Stay Asleep

Everyone struggles with sleep from time to time, but when sleepless nights and overtired days become the norm, your well-being is compromised, and frustration and worry increase—including concerns about what’s stopping you from getting the sleep you need, and what can be done about it. End the Insomnia Struggle offers a comprehensive, medication-free program that can be individually tailored for anyone who struggles with insomnia.

The 4-Week Insomnia Workbook: A Drug-Free Program to Build Healthy Habits and Achieve Restful Sleep

Counting sheep, doing a headstand or wearing socks won’t get you to sleep. Good news—addressing the root causes of your insomnia can. This book will get you from stressed to sleep in just four weeks with a range of proven drug-free strategies. With The 4-Week Insomnia Workbook as your guide, you’ll learn the latest CBT-I (Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia) and mindfulness practices to get to the bottom of your sleepless nights. Throughout this program, you’ll tackle the thoughts and feelings that keep you up at night and establish a sleep-hygiene routine that works for you.

The Book of Sleep: 75 Strategies to Relieve Insomnia

Make your bed and actually sleep in it. The Book of Sleep provides dozens of quick, easy, and evidence-based strategies that are more effective and sustainable than sleep medication for people who suffer from insomnia.

Based in CBT-I (cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia), the techniques in this book were developed by a clinical psychologist who specializes in insomnia treatment. Find the relief you need and wake up feeling truly restored. A good night’s sleep isn’t just a dream anymore.


Insomnia is Treatable Sleep Foundation.org – January 2020

Insomnia NHS.uk – January 2018

Diagnosing Insomnia – WebMD – October 2018

Narcissistic Personality Disorder (11 point guide)

In this guide, the Narcissistic Personality Disorder personality will be explained along with the signs of Narcissistic Personality Disorder and the diagnostic criteria of Narcissistic Personality Disorder given in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder 5.

What is Narcissistic Personality Disorder?

Narcissistic Personality Disorder is not similar to a self-absorbed person.  In layman language, the Narcissistic Personality Disorder term usually used when the person is complimenting themselves excessively in the conversations, as well as sharing their qualities and traits with a boost of self-esteem are seen as Narcissistic Personality Disorder.

In formal terms, the Narcissistic Personality Disorder has a personality disorder named as Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD). This is a mental condition and it requires few particular symptoms to be diagnosed in Narcissistic Personality Disorder. Those important symptoms of Narcissistic Personality Disorder will be discussed in the following guide, before going to Narcissistic Personality Disorder we need to know what personality disorders are, and how we categorize any pattern into a personality disorder.

Characteristics of Narcissistic Personality Disorder

There are a few characteristics of Narcissistic Personality Disorder which are:

  1. They may seem charming at first because of the overly exaggerated self-image they cast on others. They may complement the other only to seek attention towards their own capabilities and abilities.
  2. They keep on going with their endless stories of achievements and grandiosity keeps on flourishing. They feel batter and smarter than anyone else around and seems self-assured.
  3. They strive hard to win the compliments of others and show empathy which is not actually present to supply their sense of self-worth in you. They use others to increase their own self-esteem and sense of self.
  4. They severely lack empathy and can dramatize the empathy to validate their emotional sensitivity. This is the reason for the lack of established relations in Narcissistic Personality Disorder.
  5. They lack real friends and always complaining about others not to giving them enough time.
  6. They may pass criticising and teasing comments and maybe in problem with your likes and dislikes. They will joke about you, and try to shatter your self-esteem, as this gives their self-esteem a boost.
  7. They consider their action to be right always, and consider others are at wrong, because of their this behaviour they never apologize or accept the mistakes they make. Fighting with a Narcissistic Personality Disorder and winning the fight is almost impossible, as they never hear you, they never understand you, they never take the responsibility of their actions, they never try to compromise.
  8. They get stressed whenever anyone close to them, or in relation with them tries to break-up as they are unable to handle a lack of appreciation from their environment. They can easily get disturbed on the slightest criticism.
  9. Once you are done with them, they will make every effort to hurt you, and make sure that you are not satisfied in your own life as well. In this way, their rage and hatred gets settled.

What are Personality Disorders?

Person with a personality disorder thinks, feels, and behaves differently. There are several different types of personality disorders clustered into different categories on the basis of their characteristics.

Personality disorder is a persistent pattern of behaving and feeling, which is altered. Initially in DSM IV, personality disorder used to be diagnosed on Axis-II, but in DSM 5 (2013), the axial system has been changed and now single diagnosis with co-occurring symptoms use to be given.

Symptoms of Personality Disorder

There are a number of different personality disorders, such as the cluster A is categorized as suspicious, delusional, not interested in social interactions or not having social skills to maintain the social relationships, as well as inability to consider the consequences of their actions and lead towards illegal, and risky behaviour.

Similarly, Cluster B is categorized on the basis of dramatic symptoms. The person experiencing cluster B personality condition will report feelings of emptiness, self-harm incidents or multiple failed suicide attempts, overly impressionistic, having fragile self-esteem, and excessively praising oneself in situations.

Whereas, Cluster C, is categorized on the basis of anxious symptoms. They are sometimes overly clingy to other person, are overly concerned with order, or tries to avoid social situations because of fear of criticism.

Types of Personality Disorder

The personality disorders are clustered into three:

Cluster A: Odd, Eccentric

In this cluster there are three disorders named:

1.     Paranoid Personality Disorder

2.     Schizoid Personality Disorder

3.     Schizotypal Personality Disorder

Cluster B: Dramatic, or Unpredictable

1.     Antisocial Personality Disorder

2.     Borderline Personality Disorder

3.     Histrionic Personality Disorder

4.     Narcissistic Personality Disorder

Cluster C: Anxious, or Fearful

1.     Avoidant Personality Disorder

2.     Dependent Personality Disorder

3.     Obsessive Personality Disorder

Narcissistic Personality Disorder

They consider themselves to be superior than others. They consider as they are special and more deserving than the others. They have fragile self-esteem, as well as depend on others to acknowledge their importance and value. They are selfish and think about themselves, tries to take benefit from others, and feels sad about the achievements of others.

Diagnostic Criteria of Narcissistic Personality Disorder

There is an enduring pattern of grandiosity, self-appraisal, and lack of empathy, along with onset in early adulthood. Five or more the following needs to present for the diagnosis of Narcissistic Personality Disorder.

  1. Increased sense of self-importance, and exaggeration of self accomplishments.
  2. Having unending fantasies about their own success, power and idealism.
  3. Consider themselves unique, special and of high-status
  4. Need bundle of admiration
  5. Needs a sense of entitlement
  6. Exploitative in relationships
  7. Unable to take into account the feelings of others
  8. Jealous of others and consider others are jealous of them
  9. Extremely arrogant and rude

Causes of Narcissistic Personality Disorder

There are a number of causes of personality disorder, but there is no one clear cause of personality disorder. The factors contribute to personality disorders are biological, psychological, physical and socio-cultural.

The biological causes include the genes, heredity, family history, functioning of neurotransmitters and chemical substances.

The psychological causes of personality disorders are childhood trauma, stress, adverse family environment, low self-esteem, child neglect and parental rejection.

Physical causes include brain dysfunction and psychiatric pathology.

The sociocultural causes include divorce, being deserted, deprivation of relationships, assault, abuse death and separation.

Risk Factors in Narcissistic Personality Disorder 

The with Narcissistic Personality Disorder personality traits is more prevalent in male than females, as well as Narcissistic Personality Disorder has its onset in teenage or early adulthood.

Children show Narcissistic Personality Disorder traits is related to their age, not the Narcissistic Personality Disorder personality trait.

The real cause of Narcissistic Personality Disorder is not known, the overprotective and neglectful parental styles often leads towards the Narcissistic Personality Disorder personality traits and disorders.

Complications for Narcissistic Personality Disorder

The complications and other conditions which can cooccur with the Narcissistic Personality Disorder are:

Relationship disturbances prevail in Narcissistic Personality Disorder, which can escalate easily by the constant acknowledgement of one’s own capabilities and capacities, while criticizing, ignoring and inability to compliment others around.

Problems at work or school, the problems escalate in the outside activities, especially when they come across the job or position they consider themselves as special and superior to others around which cause a lot of negativity at their workplace.

Depression and anxiety also take a boost when the person is unable to get themselves adjusted in the environment. This feeling of misfit causes anxiety about the future and depression about the past events.

Physical Health problems are related to the mental health and wellbeing when the person is unable to cope well with his environment then they are unable to settle in the life and starts experiencing stress which causes health issues like blood pressure, cardiovascular diseases etc.

Drug or Alcohol misuse also escalates when the person is striving to be unique, special and superior. In their constant efforts either they take up this habit for the distinction they need or to cope with the environmental pressures.

Suicidal thoughts or behaviour is present in Narcissistic Personality Disorder as their high standards are not being met in their environment and causes them to feel remorse and failure.

Treatment of Narcissistic Personality Disorder 

There are different forms of treatment for Narcissistic Personality Disorder.

1.  Psychotherapy

2.      Medication


It is one form of treatment, in this a mental health professional especially a psychologist deal with the client experiencing the personality disorder symptoms. This is also called ‘talk-therapy’, this usually takes up to three months and sometimes more. There are different therapies which can be used for personality disorder.

Dialectic Behaviour Therapy

This is the evidence-based therapy for personality disorders, especially for the treatment of borderline disorder. In this treatment approach, the skills to manage one’s emotions, as well as mindfulness is discussed in detail.

Arts Therapy

This type of therapy is useful to uncover the unconscious pattern and understand the person’s emotions, and feelings in a non-threatening environment. It includes the use of dance, art, drama and music.

Cognitive Behaviour Therapy

In CBT, the clinician looks for the discrepancy in the thoughts, emotions and behaviour of the person along with the automatic thought patterns.

Schema Therapy

It is a long term talking therapy, which is based on the model of CBT, and goes further deep into the core beliefs and schemas of the person, which influence their thoughts, behaviours and actions.


There are no specific drugs made for personality disorders, but the combination of drugs for the symptoms of depression, anxiety, and psychosis are used for particular symptoms.

Frequently Asked Questions for Narcissistic Personality Disorder

What are the traits of a narcissist?

The main common traits of a Narcissist can be explained in terms of Narcissistic Personality Disorder, such as grandiosity, fantasy living, constant praise and acknowledgement, sense of entitlement, have feelings of guilt and shame, and bulling others.

What are the 9 traits of a narcissist?

The 9 traits of a Narcissist are, exaggerated sense of self-importance, sense of entitlement, excessive admiration, consider themselves superior, exaggerate achievements and talents, preoccupied with the fantasies of success, power and brilliance.

How do I deal with a narcissist?

To deal with a narcissist, you just have to avoid confrontations, and if they have power over you, fight may make it worse. You have to get in the flow with them as opposing them make them against you.

Do narcissists love their children?

Narcissists are unable to empathize and develop feelings of empathy and love, so it is unfortunate for them to love someone else other than themselves. Narcissistic Personality Disorder only see their children as possession which can be used in future to their advantage.




Recommended Readings

Becoming the Narcissistic Personality Disorder’s Nightmare: How to Devalue and Discard the Narcissistic Personality Disorder While Supplying Yourself

How to Handle a Narcissistic Personality Disorder: Understanding and Dealing with a Range of Narcissistic Personality Disorderic Personalities (Narcissism Books)

 The Narcissistic Personality Disorder You Know: Defending Yourself Against Extreme Narcissistic Personality Disorders in an All-About-Me Age

HOW TO TAKE REVENGE ON A Narcissistic Personality Disorder: Take your power back by using the secret techniques of emotional manipulators – against them

Narcissistic Personality Disorder: The Ultimate Guide: This Book Includes: Narcissistic Personality Disorderic Abuse & Dealing with a Narcissistic Personality Disorder. Healing after emotional/psychological abuse. Disarming the Narcissistic Personality Disorder and understanding Narcissism

What is narcolepsy? (A complete guide)

Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder that is characterized by excessive, uncontrollable daytime sleepiness. 

What is narcolepsy?

Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable daytime drowsiness and sudden sleep attacks. People with narcolepsy can experience sudden loss of muscle tone, which is known as cataplexy. Cataplexy can sometimes be triggered by strong emotions. 

Unfortunately, there is no cure to date for narcolepsy, but medications are available to help and lifestyle changes can help manage the symptoms. 

Excessive daytime sleepiness is a sign of narcolepsy.

What are the signs and symptoms of narcolepsy? 

There are several symptoms of narcolepsy which might worsen for the first few years after diagnosis, but then plateau for the rest of the person’s life. 

These symptoms include the following:

·      excessive daytime sleepiness

·      sudden loss of muscle tone

·      sleep paralysis

·      changes in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep

·      hallucinations.

How is narcolepsy diagnosed?

A doctor may make a preliminary diagnosis of narcolepsy based on excessive daytime sleepiness and sudden loss of muscle tone (cataplexy). After an initial diagnosis, a doctor will probably refer a patient to a sleep specialist for further evaluation.

Formal diagnosis requires staying overnight at a sleep center for an in-depth sleep analysis by sleep specialists. Methods of diagnosing narcolepsy and determining its severity include:

·       Sleep history. The doctor will ask for a detailed sleep history. A part of the history involves filling out the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, which uses a series of short questions to gauge the degree of sleepiness. For instance, a patient indicates on a numbered scale how likely it is that they would doze off in certain situations, such as sitting down after lunch.

·       Sleep records. The patient may be asked to keep a detailed diary of their sleep pattern for a week or two, so the doctor can compare how the sleep pattern and alertness are related. Often, in addition to this sleep log, the doctor will ask the patient to wear an actigraph. This device has the look and feel of a wristwatch. It measures periods of activity and rest and provides an indirect measure of how and when sleep happens.

·       Polysomnography. This test measures a variety of signals during sleep using electrodes placed on a patient’s scalp. For this test, the patient must spend a night at a medical facility. The test measures the electrical activity of the brain (electroencephalogram) and heart (electrocardiogram) and the movement of the muscles (electromyogram) and eyes (electro-oculogram). It also monitors breathing.

·       Multiple sleep latency test. This examination measures how long it takes the patient to fall asleep during the day. The patient will be asked to take four or five naps, each nap two hours apart. Specialists will observe the resultant sleep patterns. People who have narcolepsy fall asleep easily and enter into rapid eye movement (REM) sleep quickly.

What are the causes of narcolepsy? 

Many cases of narcolepsy are thought to be caused by a lack of a brain chemical called hypocretin (also known as orexin), which regulates sleep. The deficiency is thought to be the result of the immune system mistakenly attacking parts of the brain that produce hypocretin.

A doctor will probably refer a patient to a sleep specialist for further evaluation.

What are the treatments for narcolepsy? 

Narcolepsy cannot be ‘cured’ as such, but medications can help with symptoms, these include:

·       Stimulants. Drugs that stimulate the central nervous system are the primary treatment to help people with narcolepsy stay awake during the day. Doctors often try modafinil (Provigil) or armodafinil (Nuvigil) first. Modafinil and armodafinil aren’t as addictive as older stimulants and don’t produce the highs and lows often associated with older stimulants. Side effects are uncommon, but may include headache, nausea or anxiety.

Some people need treatment with methylphenidate (Aptensio XR, Concerta, Ritalin, others) or various amphetamines. These medications are very effective but can be addictive. They may cause side effects such as nervousness and heart palpitations.

·       Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). Doctors often prescribe these medications, which suppress REM sleep, to help alleviate the symptoms of cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations and sleep paralysis. They include fluoxetine (Prozac, Sarafem, Selfemra) and venlafaxine (Effexor XR). Side effects can include weight gain, insomnia and digestive problems.

·       Tricyclic antidepressants. These older antidepressants, such as protriptyline (Vivactil), imipramine (Tofranil) and clomipramine (Anafranil), are effective for cataplexy, but many people complain of side effects, such as dry mouth and lightheadedness.

·       Sodium oxybate (Xyrem). This medication is highly effective for cataplexy. Sodium oxybate helps to improve nighttime sleep, which is often poor in narcolepsy. In high doses it may also help control daytime sleepiness. It must be taken in two doses, one at bedtime and one up to four hours later.

Xyrem can have side effects, such as nausea, bed-wetting and worsening of sleepwalking. Taking sodium oxybate together with other sleeping medications, narcotic pain relievers or alcohol can lead to difficulty breathing, coma and death.

Is there treatment for narcolepsy alongside medication?

Narcolepsy is usually treated with behavioral strategies plus carefully chosen medications. Behavioral strategies include taking daytime naps and staying active. These lifestyle changes can include good sleep habits, napping, knowing how to stay alert, and developing self-awareness.

Maintain good sleep habits. Keep a regular bedtime, make your room cool and dark (use darkening shades or curtains, remove any electronic devices from your room, and use ear plugs if necessary), and avoid heavy meals or alcohol before bed. If you can’t sleep in the middle of the night, leave your bed to read a book or do another non-stimulating activity until you feel drowsy again. Do not look at your cell phone, computer or other electronic screen during the night.

Take smart naps. Strategic naps can help people with narcolepsy feel refreshed and productive. The best naps are 15-20 minutes and spaced throughout the day, without happening too close to bedtime. The point in the day when people often feel most sleepy is 2:00 – 3:00 p.m. If it’s appropriate, find a place to nap at work and explain your condition to your co-workers. Napping can increase your work productivity.

Get to know your triggers, and stay active.

Stay active. Sitting for long periods of time can increase sleepiness. Stand up and take walks, go outside, sit near a window or in the back of class so you can stand up periodically. If you can use an adjustable standing desk, or a yoga ball to sit on, this may help you stay alert.

Get to know your triggers. What are the factors that cause you to be most drowsy? Consider time of day, activities, temperature, and light. Are you more likely to experience cataplexy when you’re very tired or during a strong emotion? It helps to know your triggers and manage them so you feel more in control.

Seek counseling. You don’t have to do this alone. Counseling is an important aspect of narcolepsy treatment. Talk to an individual therapist and/or join a support group (whether online or in person). Anxiety, isolation, or self-esteem issues can arise because of narcolepsy symptoms and talking about this with others helps you learn, take control, and not feel alone.

Frequently asked questions (FAQs) about narcolepsy: 

1.    What triggers narcolepsy?

Narcolepsy is thought to be caused by deficiencies in hypocretin, which is a chemical naturally produced in the brain. Hypocretin regulates sleep and wakefulness. It has been hypothesized that the immune system mistakenly attacks the areas of the brain that produce hypocretin. 

2.    Can you die from narcolepsy?

Narcolepsy is not a fatal disease by itself, however, the sudden sleep attacks and sudden loss of muscle tone or cataplexy can lead to car accidents, injuries, or other life-threatening situations.

3.    Can I drive if I have narcolepsy?

This depends from locale to locale. When sleepiness is under good control, many people with narcolepsy are safe to drive. However, they must know their limits. Some individuals may be safe driving around town for 30 minutes but not on a four-hour, boring highway drive.

Many people with narcolepsy can drive, but must know their limits.

4.    What are the five signs of narcolepsy?

·      an uncontrollable urge to sleep, often at inappropriate times

·      weak muscles e.g. knee buckle or eye droop with strong emotions like laughing

·      poor quality sleep at night

·      feeling unable to speak or move when falling asleep or waking up

·      vivid, often scary, dreamlike experiences when falling asleep or waking up.

5.    Do narcoleptics know when they fall asleep?

People with narcolepsy fall asleep without warning, anywhere, anytime. For example, you may be working or talking with friends and suddenly you nod off, sleeping for a few minutes up to a half-hour. When you awaken, you feel refreshed, but eventually you get sleepy again.

6.    Can narcoleptics fight sleep?

It’s actually a chronic brain disorder. People with narcolepsy have poorly regulated sleep-wake cycles, so they experience sudden and involuntary attacks of daytime sleepiness—whether for a few seconds or minutes—and often aren’t able to resist the urge to sleep.

7.    How do doctors test for narcolepsy?

A narcolepsy diagnosis requires several tests. A doctor will perform a physical exam and an in-depth medical history to rule out other causes of symptoms. … Two tests that are considered essential in confirming a diagnosis of narcolepsy are the polysomnogram (PSG) and the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT).

8.    Does coffee help with narcolepsy?

Some people with narcolepsy find coffee or other caffeinated beverages helpful to staying awake. For others, coffee is ineffective, or, in combination with stimulant medications, it can cause jitteriness, diarrhea, anxiety, or a racing heart.

9.     What is Type 2 narcolepsy? 

Type 2 narcolepsy (previously termed narcolepsy without cataplexy). People with this condition experience excessive daytime sleepiness but usually do not have muscle weakness triggered by emotions. They usually also have less severe symptoms and have normal levels of the brain hormone hypocretin.

10.                  Is narcolepsy genetic?

Although there are rare families where narcolepsy is passed on through several generations, most cases of narcolepsy occur at random rather than being inherited. The likelihood of developing narcolepsy is influenced by proteins known as histocompatibility leukocyte antigens (HLA).

For further reading on narcolepsy try these books:

Wide Awake and Dreaming: A Memoir of Narcolepsy

Julie Flygare was on an ambitious path to success, entering law school at age 22, when narcolepsy destroyed the neurological boundaries between dreaming and reality in her brain. She faced terrifying hallucinations, paralysis, and excruciating sleepiness, aspects of dream sleep taking place while wide awake. 

Yet, narcolepsy was a wake-up call for Julie. Her illness propelled her onto a journey she never imagined, from lying paralyzed on her apartment floor to dancing euphorically at a nightclub; from the classrooms of Harvard Medical School to the start line of the Boston Marathon. 

Winner of the San Francisco Book Festival Award for Biography/Autobiography, Wide Awake and Dreaming is a revealing first-hand account of dreams gone wrong with narcolepsy.

Sleepyhead: Narcolepsy, Neuroscience and the Search for a Good Night

When Henry Nicholls was twenty-one, he was diagnosed with narcolepsy: a medical disorder causing him to fall asleep with no warning. For the healthy but overworked majority, this might sound like an enviable condition, but for Henry, the inability to stay awake is profoundly disabling, especially as it is accompanied by mysterious collapses called cataplexy, poor night-time sleep, hallucinations and sleep paralysis. A writer and biologist, Nicholls explores the science of disordered sleep, discovering that around half of us will experience some kind of sleep dysfunction in our lives. From a CBT course to tackle insomnia to a colony of narcoleptic Dobermans, his journey takes him through the half-lit world of sleep to genuine revelations about his own life and health.

Narcolepsy: A Funny Disorder That’s No Laughing Matter

This book provides accurate facts about all aspects of narcolepsy, a little-known neurological sleep disorder. It is estimated that 150,000-250,000 people in the U.S. have narcolepsy, but most of those have not yet been diagnosed. In the past, patients have seen an average of five or more physicians over a decade or longer before receiving a correct diagnosis of narcolepsy.

40 Winks: A Narcoleptic’s Journey Through Sleep, Dreams & Spirituality

40 Winks takes readers on a journey into the mind of a narcoleptic. The reader not only sees the hardships of daily life, but also experiences the fears and thrills of nightmares, lucid dreaming, sleep paralysis and after death communication. With her many experiences in the REM/wake mixed state of consciousness and with an education in Polysomnography, the author provides evidence to bridge the gap between medical advances in sleep and neurology and spiritual teachings of the afterlife. We all have a connection to those in the spirit world, and through REM, we open a direct line of communication. 40 Winks offers affirmation to those who may be questioning their own dream experiences as coincidence or being “just a dream.”



Narcolepsy – Overview – NHS UK – May 2019

Narcolepsy – Mayo Clinic – January 2020

Narcolepsy – WebMD – December 2019

What is orthorexia Nervosa?

Orthorexia, also known as orthorexia nervosa, is a harmful obsession with healthy eating. Those with orthorexia are often preoccupied with the cleanliness and purity of the food in their diet. This term, coined by American physician Steven Bratman in 1996, means fixation on healthful consumption. Individuals with orthorexia often find themselves scrutinizing every element in their diet, severely limiting the kinds of food that they eat. This focus to eat “a perfectly healthy” diet can take a serious toll on the bodily and mental health of the person.

This is a kind of diet that aims to limit eating of processed foods and those that have high quantities of sugar, unhealthy body fat, and other preservatives. It also includes selecting entire foods in their most natural state. For example, sticking to a vegan, dairy-free, raw nutrition, gluten-free, etc. could all fall under efforts to eat healthfully. Though, orthorexia can grow out of any specific method consumption and can develop from a genuine place of wanting to be healthier.

What are the signs and symptoms of orthorexia nervosa?

Symptoms of this disease can be visible because it can make changes in the human body that can be easily identified. Like other eating disorders, many signs surround the individual’s concept and actions regarding food intake. Also similarly, there are emotional symptoms that might be difficult to see, but the individual certainly feels. Some examples of symptoms are as follows:

Ø  Fixation over the quality of food

This is really at the root of orthorexia. Individuals living with orthorexia are very attentive and compulsive over the type of their food they eat. People with this disorder often limit their nourishment to those that they deem “healthy”. The quantity of nourishment is characteristically less significant than that quality. Individuals might also compulsively follow food and healthy lifestyle blogs and social media accounts.

Ø  Uncompromising eating patterns

Somebody with orthorexia is often very rigid with their food intake. Whatever measured by the individual to be unhealthy or bad for the body will be avoided. They typically check all food labels and ingredient lists extensively, as well as develop an unusual interest in what other people eat. They might even become extremely critical about what their friends and family are eating, without having rationale for their opinions regarding what is or is not healthy. The research that they might find themselves diving about what food has what ingredients, etc. becomes all-consuming and an obsession.

Ø  Cutting out entire food groups

This surely expresses you how unbending these orthorexia-fuelled rule-based foods can become. Removal of entire food groups is a common incidence for this population of people. For example, some groups of food could be processed foods, sugar, meat, carbohydrates, gluten and dairy products.

Ø  Anxiety  

There could be increased anxiety surrounding what food options might be available at an event. An individual with orthorexia would find themselves obsessed with thinking about their future food intake and become anxious and/or distressed if food they eat is not available to them. As a part of this, there could also be a fear of losing control. In other words, someone might feel that eating one piece of food that is not the quality they deem healthy could be disastrous.

Ø  Physical weakness

Those with orthorexia would likely find themselves feeling weak, tired, low energy, and/or cold consistently. The changes in diet and depending on what the individual continues eating can severely impact the body’s ability to maintain day to day activities. In fact, it can also impact the body’s ability to fight off sickness and these individuals might find themselves taking a long time to recover from illness.

Ø  Loss of weight

Though weight is not essentially a clinical indicator of orthorexia, some cases do include weight loss. An orthorexia diet is an unstable diet that often results in undernourishment. While someone with orthorexia may sense as though removing certain foods will bring positive body goals, they are frequently doing quite the opposite by depleting their own nourishment in decreasing food variety. Intentional weight loss and body image concerns may play a role in orthorexia, but not necessarily.


There is no treatment created specifically for orthorexia, but it is typically treated as other eating disorders and obsessive compulsive disorders are. Commonly, it is treated with psychotherapy and/or medication. Following are the most effective treatments of orthorexia given:

  1. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT)

The goal of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy is to focus on changing actions rather than thoughts and emotions. ACT also encourages clients to distance themselves from their feelings and learn that pain and anxiety are a normal part of life. The goal is not to feel good, but to live an authentic life.

  1. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)

A kind of psychotherapy known as cognitive behavioral therapy is particularly valuable for treating Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and eating disorders because it aims to modify distorted beliefs and attitudes. In regards to eating disorders, it can target the meaning of food intake, weight, and appearance, all of which are correlated to the progression of the eating disorder.

  1. Cognitive Remediation Therapy (CRT)

Cognitive Remediation Therapy aims to develop an individual’s ability to focus on more than one thing. For example, when working with a client with orthorexia, encouraging the client to think beyond the integrity of the food. CRT targets rigid thinking processes, which is considered a core component of many eating disorders through simple exercises, reflection, and guided supervision. 

  1. Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT)

Dialectical Behavioral Therapy is used often in treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Dialectical Behavioral Therapy combines behavioral, reasoning, and contemplative skills to support an individual in their healing process. The skills also have an emphasis on mindfulness, interpersonal relationships, emotion regulation, and distress tolerance.

  1. Family-Based Treatment (FBT)

Also known as the Maudsley Method or Maudsley Approach, Family-Based Treatment is a home-based treatment approach that has been shown to be effective for adolescents, specifically, with eating disorders. FBT doesn’t focus on the cause of the eating disorder, but instead focuses on refeeding and full weight restoration to promote recovery from the beginning. All family members are considered an essential part of the treatment, which consists of re-establishing healthy eating, restoring weight, and interrupting compensatory behaviors, thus returning control of eating back to the adolescent.

  1. Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT)

Interpersonal psychotherapy is an evidence-based treatment for eating disorders as it contextualizes eating disorder symptoms as occurring and being maintained within a social and interpersonal context. IPT is associated with specific tasks and strategies linked to the resolution of a specified problem area. IPT can help clients improve relationships and communication, as well as resolve interpersonal issues in the identified problem area(s). With all of those areas addressed, there is typically a reduction of eating disorder symptoms

  1. Medication

Doctors also may recommend medicines to treat orthorexia. The most generally given medications for orthorexia are antianxiety and antidepressant medications. If given medication, psychotherapy is still strongly suggested.

  1. Developing a healthier relationship with food

With so much information on diet and food out there, it can be tough to differentiate the good from the bad. Normally, we all want a balance of protein, carbohydrates, fiber, fats, vitamins, and natural resources to give us the best energy and fitness. In aiming for the ideal, look to comprise some of each food group in every meal. Swapping processed foods with fresh constitutes when possible is a decent place to start. Likewise, homebased cooking rather than take-out is also helpful in keeping a well balanced diet. Emphasis should always be caring for yourself.

Following table helps us to understand the differences between healthy eating and orthorexia.

Healthy EatingOrthorexia
1.     You do your finest to make nutritious diet selections most of the time, but make exceptions when you want to.1.     You stick strictly to your food and may waste food or become nervous if you do not have access to the food that meets your stipulations.
2.     You cut out certain foods for health reasons or when you physically feel healthier when you avoid them.2.     You cut out some nourishments or even entire food groups because you view them as impure or not good for your health.
3.     Your uniqueness is founded on numerous interests, groups, work, and hobbies.3.     Your identity is based mainly on the cleanliness and excellence of your diet.

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. What does orthorexia do to your body?

Orthorexia can cause one’s body to develop malnutrition and medical complications. Similar to other eating disorders, some possible conditions are heart disease, problems with cognition, lowered immune system, nutritional deficiencies, osteoporosis, kidney failure, and infertility.

  1. How does orthorexia start?

It can often begin as a desire to eat healthier to improve health. Orthorexia is manifested when the desire to eat healthy becomes an obsession. 

  1. Can orthorexia kill you?

Orthorexia can lead to malnutrition if the individual cuts out entire food groups. Malnutrition can lead to many other complications and can be fatal.

  1. Are vegans orthorexic?

Vegans are not orthorexic, though individuals who follow vegan diets could become orthorexic. Orthorexia is an extreme obsession with healthy eating, whereas veganism is a specific set of guidelines for one’s diet.

  1. How prevalent is orthorexia nervosa?

There is limited research on orthorexia nervosa, but the few studies that have been conducted suggest that 1%-7% of the general population. Like other eating disorders, research suggests that more women than men are affected by orthorexia. 

For more information, check out these recommended readings:

Orthorexia: When Healthy Eating Goes Bad

This book compassionately and expertly explains to the reader how to recognise potential issues, break free from the condition, and discover how to get back to a balanced, truly healthy way of eating and overall enjoying life again.

Health Food Junkies: Orthorexia Nervosa – the Health Food Eating Disorder

Health Food Junkies is the first book to identify orthorexia nervosa. Being a newly identified eating disorder, orthorexia nervosa there is not much information on the disorder in the world. This book offers detailed, practical advice on how to cope with and overcome it. 

Beating Orthorexia and the Memoirs of Health Freak: Take Back the control of your life which your obsession with health took away 

In Beating Orthorexia, the author shares his experiences and thoughts about what it means to be Orthorexic, how it can impact your life, and practical suggestions about how to alter your fundamental views about health and food around in order to overcome this condition in an incredibly honest and open way. 


Help and Treatment, Beat Eating Disorders

Orthorexia, National Eating Disorder AssociationOrthorexia Nervosa: Signs and Treatment, WebMD

Paranoid personality disorder (A complete guide)

This guide will help to identify the symptoms of paranoid personality disorder, its causes, and also highlight its treatments, to give a piece of comprehensive knowledge about paranoid personality disorder. 

What is paranoid personality disorder?

Paranoid personality disorder (PPD) is an eccentric, personality-related psychological disorder, in which there is a strange perspective of thinking is involved. The patients suffer from paranoia, mistrust, and extreme suspicion of people and events, even in situations where there seem to be no reasons to be suspicious or distrusting.

This psychological disorder usually develops in early adulthood, and more males suffer from this disorder, as compared to females. People suffering from this disorder appear to be odd or peculiar in a way that they often stand out as uncommon and weird to other people. Studies in pathophysiology have been able to gather data that suggests that paranoid personality disorder affects between 2.3% and 4.4% of the general population. 

Additional hallmarks of this disorder add to being extremely reluctant and beware of confiding in people in general, and finding some threatening meaning in things that do not usually exist. People who have a paranoid personality disorder can be very bipolar in terms of their moods and can deviate from being angry very quickly. 

There may be several factors as to why a patient may be acting extremely paranoid and mistrusting. It may be personal issues or environmental stress. Either way, for whichever reasons the patient may be feeling paranoid, it can cause many problems and communication issues with the relationships the patient shares with people.

Due to which, the patient may end up being alone, since being paranoid about everything can be a turn off in the eyes of many people. Paranoid personality disorder (PPD) is a severe issue when it comes to people’s personalities as paranoia is unhealthy for public and social interactions and gatherings. The patient may also be left behind in several aspects of their social life due to their disorder. 


Patients who have a paranoid personality disorder (PPD) are usually very vigilant, or their surroundings are generally on guard with whatever seems to be happening around them as they believe that someone or something may cause them harm, and this thinking is constant.  Some common symptoms of paranoid personality disorder are:

People with paranoid personality disorder (PPD) doubt commitments of other people at all times and questions their loyalty even when there seems to be no reason for it. They tend to end up believing that their loved ones or their love interest are using them or their bond is deceiving them.

  1. They are meticulous and usually reluctant when it comes to confiding in others about personal thoughts and experiences, and often, fear that the information that they share with other people will be eventually used against them in some harmful way.
  2. People who have a paranoid personality disorder (PPD) are usually very unforgiving nature and are quick to taunt and be mean at any chance they get since they get moody at all times. They hold grudges for long intervals, for no apparent reason.
  3. They are very hypersensitive and feel everything extremely deeply. They tend to overanalyze their feelings and think themselves into a bad mood. They take criticism very badly and aren’t always open to feedback about their work from others.
  4. Paranoid people try to look for hidden meanings in normal talks and remarks given by other people and can over-analyze casual conversations and looks.
  5. When someone talks about their character in a critique way, they are quick to get angry and retaliate in their defence quickly.
  6. They have suspicions that develop without any reason that their loved ones are being unfaithful.
  7. They are cold and distant in their relationships and often end up being possessive, controlling and jealous when it comes to sharing the attention of their loved one.
  8. Paranoid people are unable to see their role in problems they create and firmly believe that they are always right no matter how irrational they may sound in the arguments presented.
  9. They are a tough time trying to relax. Paranoid people are hostile, stubborn, and have a very argumentative behaviour even in standard situations.


The exact causes of paranoid personality disorder are unknown. Still, it most likely involves factors relating to psychology and the biological coordination of an individual and neurological problems they may have developed over time. PPD may also cause other psychological disorders like obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

PPD is extremely common in people who have schizophrenia, and its pathophysiology suggests a strong bridge with genetics involved in those two. A paranoid personality disorder may also be caused by rough experiences in one’s childhood years, during the age of 7-13, which may be a trigger for a paranoid personality in the individual.

Physical and emotional trauma over the years is also a prevalent and robust factor as people who are betrayed, or their loved ones have been unfaithful, develop a strongly paranoid personality for themselves and even do not confide in people anymore.

Personal and social interactions become very hard for people with paranoia and contribute to the development of paranoid personality disorder in people who have some minor cases of insanity. These causes of paranoid personality disorder are catalogued by DSM 5 and are strongly suggested to seek therapy if found so. (Vyas, 2016)


 A paranoid personality disorder is a well-recognized disorder by the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM 5) and is strongly suggested to be evaluated and treated. The physician or psychiatrist usually starts by performing a full evaluation with a medical history of the patient and asking about personal life.

Paranoid people typically show signs of earlier abuse, heartbreak, or any other historical trauma in their life that may have been the primary source for them to develop such a psychological disorder. If such circumstances arise and paranoia is evident in these evaluations, a full physical examination for the patient is done, despite there being no apparent test for the diagnosis of paranoia in patients.

A physical analysis is therefore used to rule out any other illnesses that the patient has, may have had, or carries, which may be an additional or root cause of paranoia. If the doctors are not able to find any psychological or physical reason, history or trauma in any form, or any other root causes, they may refer the patient to a psychologist or other health care professionals.

As a psychologist or mental health professional is a more suitable choice to treat psychological conditions and treat mental illnesses by therapy. They use precise assessments and interviews specially designed for patients of all types for evaluating a person with paranoia, or any other disorder that related to abnormal brain functioning and treats the individual is whatever possible ways therapy may be suited for the best (Lee, 2015).


Patients who have paranoid personality disorder suffer from delusions that there is nothing wrong with them, and they are seemingly just fine. They do not consider their paranoid personality as a mental disorder since the denial of rational things can often be a symptom if those reasons are not beneficial to them.

Treatment is sought by them in the form of psychotherapy and they have several sessions of counselling with a healthcare professional who has specifically designed assessments and interviews in which they ask about their childhood, any trauma they had in the past, different moods, discuss any possible situations they may have, and check the patients reflex actions to certain questions and scenarios.

These treatments most likely and majorly focus on improving their social interactions with people they work with and interact with on a weekly or daily basis as well as improving their communication and public speaking skills to boost up their self-esteem in life (Bateman,2015).

People seeking treatment for paranoid personality disorder (PPD) do not majorly receive medications for their illness as paranoia is not necessarily controlled by pills. However, sometimes doctors may recommend medications to manage the symptoms and effects by prescribing anti-anxiety, anti-depressant, and antipsychotic drugs so that some extreme symptoms can be controlled. 

If the patients are suffering from any associated psychological problem, then the psychiatrist also suggests medical checkups and performs exams on schedule basis. 

A paranoid personality disorder is different from other disorders like schizophrenia, delusional disorder, OCD, etc. and there seems to be no perceptual distortions in the person’s behaviour as well as non-bizarre delusional thinking which have no chances of being true at all.

Some individuals may also harbour suspicious thoughts about the health care professionals treating them, and that can cause problems and hurt the treatment of the disorder in a very bad way. They may move on to chronic paranoia if they are left untreated for long periods, but medications, in any case, are suggested to be prescribed for the shortest period possible.


The complications associated with paranoid personality disorder have a disrupted social life. Their thinking and behaviour get in the way of everything they do or may try to be a part of since their paranoid personality can be very off-putting to certain people on many platforms, whether it is a job or a social gathering.

Their thoughts interfere in the way of their ability to maintain healthy relationships as well as their ability to function in daily life. Their stubborn nature can sometimes land them in legal situations in which they may sue companies and people whom they think are trying to target them.

The prevalence of such attributes is an important factor that contributes to society’s views being extremely negative about the individual since they seem to always be in some kind of argumentative situation with other people.

Some Helpful Resources

  1. Paranoid Personality Disorder: The Ultimate Guide to Symptoms, Treatment, and Prevention (Personality Disorders)
  2. Cognitive Therapy of Personality Disorders
  3. The Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Workbook for Personality Disorders: A Step-by-Step Program
  4. Paranoid Personality Disorder – When Anxiety and Jealousy Hijack Your Life
  5. I Am Not Sick, I Don’t Need Help! How to Help Someone with Mental Illness Accept Treatment


A paranoid personality disorder is a chronic disorder, and the outlook of the people who have it may vary from person to person and usually last throughout a person’s life. Some people are either able to overcome their disorder or continue to function normally despite their thoughts and can get the simple joys of life like getting married and having children.

They are also able to communicate well and hold a job and excel in their fields while others are socially disabled and have no proper life when it comes to the basic human interactions needed to overcome anxiety, paranoia, and other compulsive disorders one might have. The people who resist treatment for paranoid personality disorder face poor outcomes.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q1. Does paranoid personality disorder get worse with age?

No, according to recent studies, like many personality disorders, paranoid personality disorder symptoms lessen with age.

Q2. Can paranoia go away?

There is no complete cure paranoid personality disorder, but therapy and coping with one’s symptoms can cause a person to lead a better life without any major occurrences of paranoia.

Q3. Who is a paranoid person?

A paranoid personality disorder is a condition in which people develop odd ways of thinking and suffer from delusions and suspicions about scenarios that don’t exist.

Q4. How do you know if you have paranoia?

If you are constantly finding yourself indulged in paranoid thoughts that include delusional scenarios and are quick to react to small things then there is a probability of you having paranoia.

Q5. Is being paranoid a sign of depression?

Not necessarily. Paranoia can develop in people that suffer from all kinds of mental illnesses, depression being one of them.

Q6. How do I deal with a paranoid person?

Don’t argue with them and let them get their way as arguing and indulging is a competitive conversation can only lead to a worse outcome.


  1. Paranoia Symptoms, Causes, and Treatments
  2. Paranoid Personality Disorder (PPD) Test & Self-Assessment
  3. What is paranoid personality disorder?
  4. Does paranoid personality disorder get worse with age?
  5. How is paranoid personality disorder treated?
  6. What drugs cause paranoia?

What is Resilience theory?

This blog aims to this blog aims to give you details on resilience theory. Resilience theory emphasizes that the intensity of the trauma does not matter as much as the way an individual deals with it matters. Resilience is the ability that helps an individual to bounce back when he faces distressing situations, unpleasant events for traumatic experiences. Resilience theory explains how resilience helps an individual to reflect back in difficult times. Let’s find out more about resilience and resilience theory in the next headings.

Construct of Resilience

The word resilience has been derived from the Latin word “resiliens” which means the pliant or elastic quality of a substance. According to Masten (2005) resilience is the process that is characterized by good consequences in spite of serious threats to the adaptation of development. According to psychiatric risk researcher, Rutter (1987), resilience is referred to as the positive tone of individual differences in the reaction of people towards stressful events and adversity. In view of Janas (2002), resilience is the ability of an individual to reflect back from hardships, frustration, and mischances.

Importance of Resilience 

Resilience holds great importance. It develops a tendency in individuals to reflect back and difficult times. It helps individuals maintain healthy, secure, positive, and effective relationships with others. It enhances the cognitive abilities of an individual and enables him to resolve issues effectively. Resilience help individuals cope with their distressing emotions and unpleasant situations in the most effective way. It increases the level of happiness of individuals and so forth.

Resilience Theory

According to Breda (2018: 1), resilience theory is the study of the concept of resilience, the meaning of ‘adversity’ and ‘outcomes’, spread, processes, and the implications of resilience.

The study of protective factors and risk factors has been merged through the research on resilience for more than 40 years. A number of studies have been combined to study why exposure to negative events like hardships and traumas not always produce negative outcomes in the case of young people. According to resilience theorists presence of one or more protective factors can decrease the influence of exposure to adversities. Protective factors and resilience are directly correlated. Individuals having a greater number of protective factors are found to have greater resiliency. Yet it is to be noted that resilience is not a stable construct. The level of resilience might vary from person to person and situation to situation write the benefits of resilience remain the same every time. 

There is a general agreement that excessive and intensive exposure to adversities, traumatic events, and insufficient schooling can threaten the life chances of young people in spite of their protective factors. It is important for young people to be exposed to positive and encouraging situations to help them develop and enhance their coping skills. 

Peer-based programs found to help increase protective factors and resiliency in young people who are at risk, by increasing access to positive role models, providing them a safe space, teaching them about help services, providing opportunities for learning and developing skills, enabling them to gain the support of peers by sharing experiences, and developing a sense of belongingness in their relationships.

Resilience Theory in Social Work

In the past several years’ resilience theory has become an important part of the field of social work, especially the one involving children. This is because of community relationships influence academic areas as well as the social work principle that individuals must accept their responsibility of contributing to the well-being of the other people (International Federation of Social Workers, 2019).

Resilience theory was applied in researches related to social work for a number of reasons. One of these is that developing factors that help build up resilience can help threatened clients by enhancing thier competency and promoting their health, aiding them in reflecting through adversities, exploring stressors, and motivating them to confront them, grow and survive (Greene et al., 2004).

In the case of social workers, the issues in social work include exploring protective factors and utilizing them to enhance the effectiveness of the intervention, applying practical solutions to enhance capacity as well as strength of individual clients,  societies and communities, and understanding the role of social work policy and services in developing or obstructing well-being, social and economic injustice.

Recommended Books

The following are some of the best books on resilience theory. These books are a helpful source for increasing knowledge about resilience theory. All of the books are easily accessible on Amazon Store. Click the book you wish to read and you will be redirected to the page from where you can access it.

What is resilience theory in social work?

In social work, resilience theory emphasizes that every individual has an ability to some extent to recover from a trauma or a distressing situation. This strength is due to resilience which is referred to as the ability to bounce back after going through difficult times or tragedies. 

Who developed the resilience theory?

Norman Garmezy is known to develop resilience theory. He did a lot of researches on resilience and on the basis of those researches, he concluded that protective factors at individual levels, family levels and, external to family levels affect the resilience of an individual.

What are the 7 C’s of resilience?

The 7 C’s of resilience include control, competence, coping, confidence, connection, character, and contribution.

What is a resilience framework?

Resiliency framework is referred to as building on current plans, policies, and investments by examining existing conditions in the community. This framework helps analyze how the decrease of vulnerability to shocks and stresses can affect an individual’s daily life activities, long-term planning, and goals. 

What are the 5 skills of resilience?

The 5 skills of resilience include self-awareness, attention letting go physically, letting go mentally, accessing, and sustaining positive emotion.

How do we develop resilience?

Resilience can be developed in a number of ways. Some ways to develop resilience include getting enough sleep, following a healthy diet, practicing self-awareness, practicing cognitive restructuring, learning from mistakes and failures rather than feeling sad for them, choosing your response, and maintaining your perspective.

This blog aimed to provide you a detailed review of resilience theory. We hope this blog would be a source of information for you and you would have discovered how important resilience is for promoting our well-being and helping us pass through adversities. Your reviews about the blog are highly welcomed. If you have any queries or questions regarding this blog, let us know through your comments in the comments section. We will be glad to assist you.


Resilience Theory: What Research Articles in Psychology Teach Us (+ PDF) by Catherine Moore (2020)

Resilience Skills, Factors and strategies of the Resilient Person by Leslie Riopel

Conceptual Frameworks and Research Models on Resilience in Leadership Janet Ledesma (2014)

Resilience theory – My-Peer Toolkit



What is Relational Frame Theory?

This blog aims to provide you information on relational frame theory. Relational frame theory is a modern analytic approach to language that tends to explain the link between human language and behavior.

The Skinnerian approach is the former outdated approach that was introduced before the relational frame theory. According to the relational Framework theory, relational framing is the process by which language is explained. It is a modern behavior analytic approach to human language. Let’s find out more about the relational frame theory in the next headings.

What is Relational Frame Theory?

The relational frame theory was put forward by Dr. Stephen Hayes. This theory was introduced with the purpose of combining a wide range of psychological phenomena into a coherent theory of language based on contextual relationships. According to relational frame theory, human cognition and communication recognized by an individual’s tendency for exploring and developing relational links between stimuli, and it is made possible by and individual’s “arbitrarily applicable relational responding” ability (Cullinan & Vitale, 2009).

Steven Hayes

Dr. Steven Hayes, the developer of relational frame theory, is a clinical psychologist and a professor of the University of Nevada’s behavior analysis program. He developed the relational frame theory with the purpose of explaining human cognition and language. He had studied B. F. Skinner, the psychologist, just like other students in his academic life. He cherished the work of B. F. Skinner in describing the behavior and considered it an opportunity to make an important contribution in the field of behaviorism. Behaviourism is a theory, based on language from the behaviorist perspective. 

Thus, Dr. Steven Hayes started working on developing the relational frame theory. Once he was done with this work, he expanded his contribution to a very significant goal which in his words is explained as follows:

“What we are seeking is the development of a coherent and progressive contextual behavioral science that is more adequate to the challenges of the human condition.” (Hayes, n.d.).

Dr. Steven Hayes continued saying that relational frame theory and related empirical evidence is aimed at developing:

“useful basic principles, workable applied theories linked to these principles, effective applied technologies based on these theories, and successful means of training and disseminating these developments…” (Hayes, n.d.).

Dr. Steven Hayes followed different pathways for working on his goal. One of these ways was to contribute his empirical skills and understanding to “Acceptance and Commitment Therapy”. He applied the theories and findings of relational frame theory to cognitive and behavioral therapy. In this way, he created a very huge body of empirical evidence to prove how effective acceptance and commitment therapy techniques were.

Applications of Relational Frame Theory

The following are some applications of Dr. Steven Hayes’ relational frame theory.

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy

Dr. Steven Hayes has been credited for introducing relational frame theory as well as acceptance and commitment theory, being an inspiration for one another. Nonetheless, the relationship between relational frame theory, as a basic science and acceptance and commitment therapy, as its application, is still being researched today.

Gender Constructs

Queer theorist along with an ACT therapist Alex Stitt how people’s relational frame within their language development explain their cognitive associations related to gender identity, gender role, and gender expression. According to Alex Stitt, the adaptation of the concept of gender and openness to gender diversity depends upon the stiffness or flexibility of an individual in his relational frames.

Autism Spectrum Disorder

The relational frame theory guides the concept and procedure on how to enhance cognitive language development tendency in young children suffering from Autism and related disorders.

Evolution Science 

Relational frame theory is also found to be a way of explaining the process of language with evolution science either within evolution biology or evolutionary psychology. This theory gives a more detailed understanding of the role of language in modifying the social behavior of human beings. Steven Hayes, the one who introduced relational frame theory, and David Sloan Wilson, evolutionary biologist, are the two people who contributed to applying relational frame theory into evolution science.

Recommended Books

The following is a list of some best books on relational frame theory. These books are a very good source of increasing knowledge about relational frame theory and learning applications of relational frame theory in our daily lives. Just click the book you wish to study and you will be redirected to the page from where you can access it.

What is relational frame ABA?

Relational frame theory is a kind of psychotherapy that is based on human language. The theory emphasizes that natural human language not just explain the strength of a link between stimuli but also specifies the kind of relationship as well as other mentioned along which they are to be related.

What is frame theory?

The frame theory is based on the notion that the media only pay attention to a certain event and then places them within a field of meaning. In simple words, the frame theory emphasizes how something is being presented to the audience affects the choices that people make about how to process that information.

What is derived relational responding?

Derived relational responding is referred to as a kind of seed through which a behavioral analysis of language and cognition may grow. Derived relational responding has a significant similarity to language phenomena such as bidirectionality anticipated between words and referents.

Who created the Relational Frame Theory?

The relational frame theory was created by Dr. Stephen Hayes who is recognized as a clinical psychologist and a professor of the University of Nevada’s behavioral analysis program. Dr. Stefan Hayes introduced the relational frame theory with the purpose of explaining human cognition and language.

What are the types of framing?

Framing could be light, heavy, and expedient. The three principal types of light framing include a western, balloon, and braced.

What does RFT Add to Sidman’s equivalence relations?

Stimulus equivalence is a research-based phenomenon and relational frame theory is about how this phenomenon comes about. The relational frame theory analyses and explains how people are able to form equivalence classes.

This brief blog explained in detail the relational frame theory to help you clarify your concept about this theory and the use of this theory. If you have any questions for queries regarding this blog, let us know through your comments. We will be glad to assist you in this regard.


What is Relational Frame Theory? A Psychologist Explains (+PDF) by Courtney E. Ackerman (2019)

Relational Frame Theory 101: An Introduction | NewHarbinger …

Relational frame theory – Wikipedia



Anxiety symptoms (A complete list)

This article will be discussing about the symptoms of anxiety, physical symptoms of this kind of mental disorder, symptoms of severe anxiety, the feeling of this kind of mental illness, anxiety on emotions, anxiety on body image, side effects of this kind of mental illness, the length of time of this mental illness, and stomach pain in anxiety.

Anxiety symptoms

Symptoms of anxiety are manifested in different ways depending on the severity of the mental disorder. These symptoms can be physical and mental. Usually, people think of anxiety as something mental but this is mostly not true to some people with this mental disorder. Affected people can have symptoms of hair loss, loss of sleep, loss of appetite, unexpected panic attacks, and excessive sweating.

Mental symptoms of this mental disorder are overthinking, catastrophic thinking, feeling on edge, hypervigilance, and avoidance of feared objects or situations. Most anxious patients tend to be overthinkers that looks at normal situations to have an overall meaning for someone’s life. For example, a person finds that his/her friend is ignoring the person and the person is bothered by this ignorance and looking at many different scenarios that may lead to excessive worry. Catastrophic thinking is another kind of cognitive distortion that engages in thinking of the worst possible scenarios that aren’t even close to reality such as the person is about to get married and because of worries associated to marriage life, the person may think that she/he will get divorced in a matter of a few days.

Symptoms of anxiety

The symptoms of anxiety are not something that is all in the mind. These kinds of symptoms may happen suddenly that the affected patient may feel confused when these symptoms start appearing. The physical symptoms of anxiety may come from an irregular function of the parasympathetic system. This kind of system in the autonomic nervous system makes people relax once it will need relaxation from the activation of the sympathetic nervous system.

This kind of system is responsible for the fight-or-flight system which makes to attack or escape from incoming danger. The dysregulation of this kind of system can cause panic attacks. This is also the science on why anxiety tends to be an interaction between physical causes and mental causes. Cognitive distortions can also lead affected patients to make their present anxiety disorder to become worse because of the constant worrying.

What is anxiety symptoms

Anxiety symptoms are subjective manifestations that are considered as having Anxiety Disorders. The affected patient doesn’t need to have all these symptoms of specific anxiety disorders. The patient can have two or more symptoms of anxiety disorder to be diagnosed. This diagnosis will help the affected patient get the treatment he or she needs to minimize the symptoms of the anxiety disorder.

The symptoms of anxiety disorder are different experiences for any kind of affected patient. For instance,  one of the symptoms in body dysmorphic disorder is looking at the mirror to see an ugly body but some affected patients manifest this kind of symptom by lessening their food intake or having excessive exercise routines. The affected client doesn’t even need to meet all the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder to meet treatment but they can go to therapy if only some symptoms have been showing in the patient. You can learn more about post-traumatic stress disorder by buying this book on this website.

Physical anxiety symptoms

The physical symptoms of some anxiety disorders tend to be related on the tensing of the muscles. Some therapies that are beneficial for anxiety believe that anxiety can be strengthened if the muscles get tense from external factors or internal factors. Other symptoms of anxiety focus on the internal organs of the body. The patient may feel like going to the bathroom since anxiety may cause excessive urination and defecation.

This kind of symptom is what most clients are uncomfortable with since this makes them go to the restroom while walking around in a public place. Some affected patients tend to have uncontrollable shaking hands due to anxiety. These symptoms are relatively common for affected patients who have to go on stage to deliver a speech. Some of these patients may shake the podium because of this kind of symptom which may cause embarrassment and a fear of public speaking.

What does anxiety feel like

Anxiety may feel like an unpleasant feeling in times of great calm. This means that these affected people feel nervous even in situations that don’t elicit stress. For example, hanging out with best friends is supposed to make you feel happy and connected but the lingering feeling inside you keeps on poking you for your attention. Because of this, you may start sweating or blushing even if you didn’t want to let these reactions surface in the situation.

Anxiety may also feel like a constant need to urinate or defecate. If you are anxious, you feel like there is a churning sensation in your stomach. You may even feel nauseated with these kinds of feelings. You can learn more about these anxious feelings by buying this book on this website

A full list of Anxiety symptoms (9+)

Anxiety signs

Signs of anxiety tend to be hidden from other people since these anxious patients are worried about showing their anxiety symptoms to loved ones who may constantly worry about their well-being. Anxiety can be hidden through the calm faces of these anxious patients. Physical illnesses can be a hidden sign of anxiety since most physical illnesses may reach a cause of some bad food taken or bad air even if anxiety was the true cause. Sleeping problems are also signs of anxiety due to the stress that may not give the anxious patient a good night’s sleep.

Anxious patients also tend to ask loved ones or acquaintances on how they look for a date or a thesis presentation. This is also a sign of severe anxiety since these patients are showing signs of insecurity which is related to anxiety. Anxiety may also be seen in patients who are suffering from eating disorders. Some anxious patients engage in unhealthy eating habits because of severe anxiety. 

Anxiety symptoms severe

Symptoms of severe anxiety can be physical or psychological. Physical symptoms include heart palpitations, feelings of nausea, shaking in some parts of the body such as hands or knees, sweating, dry mouth, pain on the chest, headaches, and difficulty in breathing. These symptoms make most anxious patients go to the bathroom while roaming in a public place or go to the primary care doctor if the symptoms are related to a physical illness. These kinds of symptoms arise from the nervous system in reaction to anxiety.

The symptoms of severe anxiety should also be disproportionate to the situation. This means that the anxiety felt by the person is not a normal reaction to a particular situation such as social situations or being at huge heights. When the stressful situation is gone, the severely anxious patient will still feel the symptoms of anxiety which makes it distressing to the affected person. You can learn more about severe anxiety by buying this book on this website

A full list of Anxiety symptoms (9+)

Anxiety feeling

The feeling of anxiety can be focused on the worst scenarios that may happen in the future. This feeling may pass if the person is not facing the feared situation or object anymore. Some affected patients may have this kind of feeling even when the threat is gone. This kind of feeling is the severe form of anxiety which can be categorized as anxiety disorders.

This severe anxiety feeling can make the affected person not able to concentrate on important areas in life. These important areas may be at school or work, family gatherings, social events, and moments with a significant partner. This can also inhibit the affected person’s need to do his or her goals in life such as being top in the class and getting an award in the gymnastics. Anxiety has also been considered to be a kind of insistent worry that tends to not go away even when the threat is gone.

Severe anxiety

Severe anxiety is the kind of anxiety felt when the affected patient feels like there is no end to worrying. In short, this kind of anxiety is debilitating to the affected patient. People with this kind of anxiety may feel agitated almost every day in their lives even in relaxing moments. You can learn more about severe anxiety by buying this book on this website

What anxiety feels like

People who have experienced debilitating anxiety symptoms don’t see their anxiety as something that only needs to be treated by finding a cause of the anxiety. Most affected patients find this untrue as this is mostly defined by mental health professionals. Some patients may feel like they are being stabbed every time they feel an anxiety attack. Most patients prefer to this pain as some sort of hurt in the stomach.

Most patients feel like they are in a negative thunderstorm every time they go to different places they wish to go. Some patients may feel a sense of depersonalization in the course of debilitating anxiety. This means that patients feel like they are looking at someone else even if it was the person’s body. Most patients feel like they can’t control their thoughts and emotions even when they need to calm them down.

Effects of anxiety

The effects of anxiety is another term for the symptoms of some anxiety disorders or moderate anxiety. The patient may have an irregular bowel movement due to intense fear. The patient may also have obsessive thoughts that may lead to compulsive behaviours such as constant checking if the appliances were turned off when the patient leaves. You can learn more about the effects of anxiety by buying this book here.

Symptoms of anxiety attacks

Anxiety attacks are symptoms of some anxiety disorders except for panic disorder. Anxiety attacks can have physical symptoms, behavioural symptoms, and psychological symptoms. The behavioural symptoms of anxiety attacks may be withdrawal from feared objects or situations, having compulsive behaviours, and being hypervigilant to triggering objects or situations. The psychological symptoms are obsessive thoughts, overthinking worst consequences in being with feared objects or situations, and personality changes such as being asocial due to social anxiety.

The physical symptoms may be breathlessness, concentration problems, and muscle tension. These symptoms may make the patient get away from any kind of activity with loved ones. The thoughts in an anxiety attack can be present for hours due to a lack of control. These patients may feel like someone else is controlling them aside from themselves.

How does anxiety feel

Anxiety feels like someone is choking the patient. Some patients may feel that they can’t speak due to the anxiety. The anxiety may cause them to forget about what they were previously talking about to a friend. This means that the patient may have dissociative symptoms that make them forget what they were doing in the first place.

What is anxiety like

Anxiety is like a wave of thoughts that persist without an off switch. These patients feel like this is a strange feeling since the symptoms may keep on going. These patients have the impulse to leave from a threatening place. This can help the patient feel more comfortable once they avoid the feared situation or object.

The patient may find that he or she can have this feeling even when danger is not present. This awareness makes them feel ashamed of having this feeling. Anxiety is a normal feeling but if it becomes debilitating, it may affect every area in life. Fortunately, treatment is easily accessed for this problem.

Anxiety and stress symptoms

The symptoms of anxiety and stress are quite similar in the physical symptoms part. A person undergoing stress may have muscle tension like anxiety. The stress may make a person sweaty from the pressure. The breathing of a stressed person may quicken.

This is also a symptom of anxiety. The blood pressure rises when stress overcomes a person which may not be symptoms of all kinds of anxiety. Stress may affect a person’s thoughts, emotions, and behaviours just like severe anxiety. Symptoms of stress may be debilitating but this condition can be managed.

How anxiety feels

Patients who are new to anxiety may think that this feeling is bad. Most of the time, anxiety may be a cause of the amygdala which is the emotional centre of the brain. This can be a reason why anxiety can’t be easily controlled by the patient. The patient can also feel stressed with this feeling since it can create an obsession of thoughts that are not necessary in the present moment.

Anxiety disorder symptoms

The symptoms of anxiety disorder can be more than the symptoms of moderate anxiety and mild anxiety. In generalized anxiety disorder, the symptoms are feeling hypervigilant, concentration problems, and sleeping too much or too little. The symptoms of this disorder are persistent and can happen at an older age. The symptoms of panic disorder are feelings of going crazy, sweating hands, and choking sensations.

Some symptoms of specific phobia are avoidance of feared objects or situations. The fear must also disproportionate or extreme of the threat. Some symptoms of selective mutism is being mute in school and only talks to family members. Some symptoms of separation anxiety disorder are fearful of something bad may happen to a loved one and is overly dependent on loved ones to bring them anywhere.

Extreme anxiety symptoms

Symptoms of extreme anxiety are symptoms that usually constitute anxiety disorders. These symptoms are heavy breathing, restlessness and fatigue, obsessive worrying, stomach problems, feeling crazy, extreme avoidance of a feared object or situation, and compulsive behaviours. These symptoms are mostly seen in severe anxiety which is the term used to mean extreme anxiety. Not all symptoms of severe anxiety will be seen in patients who are diagnosed with an anxiety disorder but it may be fewer symptoms but these symptoms must cause distress upon the person.

Side effects of anxiety

The side effects of anxiety are different for people who may have moderate or severe anxiety. Some people with moderate anxiety may have an irregular bowel movement. This is because these people will have unpleasant reactions on their stomachs that may cause them to release some of these feelings. This is why most people who are feeling great anxiety will become a daily user in the restroom. 

People with severe anxiety may become asocial due to fear of situations with people. This is true for people who are diagnosed with a social anxiety disorder. This can also happen to other anxiety disorders that bring people to avoid any kind of friendly occasion. People who have a fear of water will not be able to hang with friends in pool parties.

Bad anxiety symptoms

Some symptoms of anxiety are considered bad to the person who is experiencing these symptoms. Most people complain about muscle tension that is associated with this condition. Other people complain about deprived of sleep which makes them unable to be at peace due to the lack of sleep. Most people would be distressed that they can’t socialize with the people they love due to this condition.

How long does anxiety last

The length of anxiety depends on what kind of anxiety is the person experiencing. Mild anxiety only happens in the duration of an anxious situation. This can be seen when the person is running late for school and is running towards the school to be able to get to school on time. After the person reached the school in time, the anxiety disappears. With moderate anxiety, symptoms tend to last from the appearance of threatening stimuli to a few minutes after the present danger.

Concerning severe anxiety, this depends on the kind of anxiety disorder the person is having. The person with panic disorder can have panic attacks that last for 4-20 minutes. In people with generalized anxiety disorder, the person will feel hypervigilant and worry excessively for 6 months. In patients with specific phobia, these people tend to have their fears for years since some fears tend to be reinforced in most of these patients’ lives such as the fear of public speaking and fear of blood. 

How does anxiety affect you

Anxiety affects your functioning in life. If you are excessively worried for your first date going wrong, the date will go wrong. Anxiety can also help you to work better in some works in your life. If you are anxious about writing a speech to a huge audience, you will have the motivation to prepare the speech than not doing anything since this can bring you a little more relief.

Acute anxiety symptoms

Symptoms of acute anxiety can appear rarely unlike symptoms of severe anxiety. These symptoms are sweating, cold hands, shaky skin sensations (goosebumps), temporary catastrophic thinking, and other cognitive distortions. Physical symptoms are not usually seen in people with this kind of anxiety. Most people with this kind of anxiety tend to hide anxiety and do a good job about this.

Most people will be in a distressing state in their minds. Despite this, most people with this kind of anxiety can still manage their anxiety. These people can relieve this kind of anxiety by breathing deeply or counting. This kind of anxiety can be easily relieved if the person uses the anti-anxiety technique that has worked for the person.

What does anxiety feel like physically

Anxiety feels like a person is about to die. This is because some people tend to choke on their words when this feeling comes in. Some patients will usually feel chest pains when an anxiety attack or panic attack happens. This is what usually makes these people think that they are going before realizing it was an anxiety attack.

Psychological symptoms of anxiety

The psychological symptoms of anxiety revolve around the person’s mind. These symptoms may also involve emotions. This feeling can cause the person to tense up. This brings the importance of how the mind can influence the body.

The person is susceptible to overthinking when anxiety strikes. This also makes people engage in cognitive distortions. One of the most common cognitive distortions in anxiety is catastrophic thinking. This kind of thinking can increase panic attacks in panic disorder.

Mental anxiety

Mental anxiety is anxiety that is focused on the feeling and thoughts associated with this kind of condition. Most patients with anxiety disorders will try to get rid of this kind of feeling. This kind of feeling must be relieved by these people since this feeling is associated to physical symptoms of the anxiety disorder such as choking sensations and chest pains. Worried thoughts are very rampant in this kind of condition which can drive the person to sleeplessness.

What anxiety looks like

Anxiety in a person looks like a person is in a cold place without the appearance of the cold temperature. This is because some people having this feeling may have cold hands and trembling sensations. The person with anxiety may also look like a person who is living in a hot climate place. This is because these people can sweat excessively due to this feeling.

This feeling may also look like a calm face. This is because some anxious people may have learned to keep a calm face despite the unpleasant feeling. Sometimes, this method may not work for most people since the inhibition of this feeling may make it worse. This feeling can be related to a water bucket and when it’s full, the water will keep bursting from the bucket which is the same as anxiety.

What does it feel like to have anxiety

Anxiety feels like a huge obstacle is blocking the person from moving forward. This is because most anxious patients feel that their chests are blocked by a huge wall. Some patients may describe it as something constricting inside the person’s heart. Anxiety may also not focus on a single situation but many different situations which make the person have trouble in what to prioritize and losing concentration.

Anxiety feels like

Anxiety feels like drowning in the ocean. It feels like you can’t breathe or speak at all. Thoughts can keep swirling on your mind like a tidal wave that keeps on flowing. You can’t even live a day without a series of thoughts that keep wavering on your mind. 

This feeling is like you are being crushed by the world. This is because the need to please everyone around you can lead to this feeling as well. You always have the need to be perfect for these people. In the end, you will end up alone and used up all your energy for these people who aren’t all caring for you.

Emotional anxiety

Anxiety is a natural emotional state but taken to the extremes can cause the person to become distressed. This kind of emotion is also associated with fear which causes the person to avoid any feared situation or object that can create dysfunction in his or her life. This can stop the person to concentrate on important tasks such as tests and job interviews. This kind of emotion, when taken to extremes, can create constant nervousness which is also a source of distress. 

What does anxiety stomach pain feel like

The anxiety manifested as stomach pain feels like you are going to have to defecate every hour. Some anxious people who feel this kind of symptom tend to be a regular user of the bathroom. This is because most of them think that they feel like they are going to defecate but it doesn’t come out. Some anxious people are able to defecate but the outcome is not the result of regular bowel movement.

Some anxious people are comfortable with releasing the gas from this pain. This can cause temporary relief on the person. Although it’s not good if the person releases this gas in a public place. Some anxious people may try to drink water to ease the pain.

Body anxiety

The anxiety of the body is characterized as over-worrying of a physical defect on the body. This may lead to bodily distortions in some susceptible individuals which can lead to insistent changing of body parts. This symptom is part of body dysmorphic disorder which is an anxiety disorder that is characterized by focused attention to the perceived defect on the body and consistently changing the defect on the body. People with this disorder tend to be regular visitors to a clinic that apply changes for any defect on the body such as nose and sex organs and they lose their money on this mechanism since the change does not give them much satisfaction.

How anxiety affects you

Anxiety affects you in your activities daily. You may hang out with your friends to a water park but you are extremely uncomfortable with the many people around you. You may also feel a nagging feeling that there is truly something wrong with the food. This may make your friend who made the food disappointed with your reaction to his or her food.

This feeling may also affect your work life. You find it difficult to reach deadlines since you are afraid of something going amiss with your work. You may also feel alertness when gossip has surrounded your early abuse experiences. You may not be comfortable with visiting the boss on the highest floor of the building.

Anxiety and stress physical symptoms

The physical symptoms of anxiety do not usually manifest in people with mild anxiety but it is rampant on people with moderate anxiety and severe anxiety. Not all physical symptoms will manifest on a patient but it may only be a few symptoms that may show on the person. Nevertheless, these symptoms can affect how the person deals with daily life and his or her health. Here are the physical symptoms of anxiety and stress.

  • Feelings of weakness
  • Pounding heart
  • Constant sleeplessness
  • Debilitating headaches
  • Digestive troubles

Emotional anxiety symptoms

Anxiety is an emotional state that people will face from time-to-time. This emotion can help people be more prepared in any kind of stressful events such as school activities and work duties. This emotion can also increase its frequency if the person does not learn to deal with this emotion healthily. This can cause personal distress, dysfunction in life, and danger to oneself if this emotion becomes uncontrollable. 

This emotion is usually triggered by an object or situation that causes this feeling. These objects or situations may depend on what the person thinks is filled with this emotion. Unfortunately, some people can have this emotion without the appearance of these stimuli within the person’s view which causes them confusion and stress. Here are the following symptoms of emotional anxiety.

  • Excessive feelings of worry
  • Feelings of going insane
  • Uncontrollable fears on feared stimuli
  • Thinking of the worst possible consequences when engaging with the feared stimuli
  • Excessive fear of intimacy

What is it like to have anxiety

Some people tend to be seen as calm when the inside of these people is excessive anxiety. This emotion can make a person think about imminent feelings of possible doom. People with this emotion in its extremities can make them have feelings of losing control which is a scary feeling for these people. These people will worry about having this emotion which may make this emotion more severe than before.

What it feels like to have anxiety

The person who is having anxiety may be described as consistent fearfulness. This kind of feeling may stop the person from feeling any kind of relief in calm moments. The body in this emotion may feel clenched to the affected person which will make him or her stiff to move anywhere or do anything. People with the excessive formation of the emotion may insistently try to get rid of the feeling but this is a fatal effort.

These people will feel more personal distress due to the intensity of the feeling that can stop them from enjoying any kind of fun in life. This kind of emotion can make people less motivated to sleep. These people are easily irritated due to lack of sleep. Some people would even describe this feeling like an out-of-body experience.

What does anxiety do to you

Anxiety can help you prepare for any kind of stressful event. This can help people to be more ready to handle any kind of situation. An increase in blood pressure can also happen when a person is anxious. Severe anxiety tends to happen in the middle ages of a person which can make the person more hypervigilant than before this kind of anxiety.

How does anxiety make you feel

Anxiety will make you feel restless. This condition makes you feel like the world is on your shoulders. Your worries will come even if you didn’t control these worries to come to you. You will feel a racing pulse in you that can make you sweat thinking that you may have a serious physical illness.

You will also feel the need to move a lot because of this emotion. This may tire out when you don’t really want to move around at the present moment. You may also become hyperactive due to this need to move a lot which can make you fatigued after this impulse. You may also have memory problems because this emotion can be intrusive to your concentration on a task that involves memory such as tests.


Symptoms of anxiety have these characteristics which are behavioural, psychological, physical, and social. These symptoms can deter a person’s function in important areas in life such as school, work, and social life. This emotion can make you feel more worried than happy in your life. You can comment below on what you think about these symptoms and share your experiences with this unpleasant emotion.

FAQ Questions

How are you diagnosed with anxiety?

You are diagnosed with anxiety once the mental health professional finds that your records such as medical exam records and other physical exam records prove that you may have an anxiety disorder.

Can anxiety kill you?

Anxiety cannot kill you but the feeling is like you are about to die.

Does anxiety worsen with age?

Anxiety worsens with age if the anxiety is considered as severe.

Is there any cure for anxiety?

There is a cure for anxiety such as therapy and/or medication.

Is anxiety a disability?

Anxiety is not a disability but it can disable the person’s functions in life when this emotion becomes severe.


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