Athazagoraphobia (A 7 point guide)

In this article we will discuss Athazagoraphobia. 


Phobia is a word derived from Greek language which is known as fear. This might be an exaggerated aversion with something. There are various factors which can possibly contribute to the development of phobia. Environmental and genetic factors are likely to pave way for the development of a phobia. Anyone can expose themselves to any kind of phobia by thinking irrationally about a particular thing. A person with some kind of phobia will try to avoid things which he considers to be hazardous. Phobias are mental disorders which can be cured or overcome.


This phobia is not discussed frequently. Athazagoraphobia is a word referred to as a person being afraid of being ignored, forgotten or fear of forgetting. So, this phobia consists of two different types: patients who are suffering from dementia at an earlier stage or people who are having any severe medical condition in which a person is more prone to memory loss where they are being afraid of forgetting something or even their own identity.

One may say that Athazagoraphobia can be observed in parents or spouses who are suffering from dementia or Alzheimer’s. Because they assume that one day they will be ignored or completely forgotten by their own family members or loved ones or nobody will keep them remember after they die. This phobia can also develop in children. Because some children often get ignored and left alone behind for a longer time period. There is a surprising fact about this phobia is that, this is a common type of phobia but still this phobia is reported rarely.

Athazagoraphobia isn’t recognised by American Psychiatric Association as a mental disorder for diagnosing in DSM V. Therefore, until or unless this anxiety or fear is so excessive that just having thoughts about meeting other people and going through the phase of being ignored or forgotten and replaced by peer group makes a person afraid to an extent where it becomes hard or even impossible for a person to that it’s causing dysfunctioning, one cannot be assessed and diagnosed with Athazagoraphobia.

People who have developed Athazagoraphobia or are diagnosed with this phobia are often noticed being afraid of, being replaced, being forgotten, being ignored, being abandoned or forgetting something.

Symptoms of Athazagoraphobia

Those people who have been diagnosed with athazagoraphobia show a low level of self-esteem and self-confidence. Usually, people with this kind of phobia have depression, are introvert or they don’t have courage and ability to meet or interact with new people around them. It is seen that such people are often passive and shy. Athazagoraphobia also seems to be more common in people who don’t have a good memory, are diagnosed with dementia. These conditions get worse with the passage of time.

Such people have developed this fear at the initial stage of their disease. Few people are seen being afraid of neurodegenerative disease or Alzheimer’s disease because anyone from their family, friends or closed one to whom they know very closely, have also suffered from these problems. An interesting development has been observed in these patients that they spend a lot of money on purchasing supplements or drugs which are considered helpful in improving the memory.

Athazagoraphobia, like many other phobias, may incite anxiety and panic attacks. There some typical symptoms which are found in those patients who are afraid of being forgotten. Few of these symptoms are as follow;

  • Breathlessness or breathing so fast.
  • Suffocation.
  • Feeling like almost died.
  • Inability to form coherent sentences
  • Sweating
  • Nausea
  • Isolation
  • Sadness
  • Agitation
  • Depression
  • Anger
  • Panic attacks
  • Dizziness
  • Increased blood pressure
  • Avoiding social Interactions

The above mentioned symptoms can vary from a person to another person and in most cases these symptoms depend on the frequency and severity of Athazagoraphobia. Depression and anger are considered most common symptoms of Athazagoraphobia. People who are diagnosed with Athazagoraphobia like to live alone rather than being ignored by other people. They will make every possible measure to make sure that people don’t forget them:burying mementos in the soil, tying knots around fingers or around trees and so on.

Causes of Athazagoraphobia

Like most of other phobias, causes of Athazagoraphobia are not well known. The apparent causes for the development of this phobia might be due to genetics or biological nature caused by the changes in the brain. The issue may have arisen due to some sort of an emotional trauma in early age. There might have been a long absence of mother or father when the child would have been growing or there may be a case that the child might have been abused or assaulted physically, emotionally or verbally. This issue might be a result of an unwanted experience during school times.

Failure of a relationship or breaking up with a girlfriend or boyfriend can be a traumatic experience. These kinds of experiences can incite fear of being ignored or being forgotten. On the other hand, a person might have forgotten a significant event. For example, time or venue of a job interview, birthday of close friend or a family member or a wedding date.

The loss of reputation at workplace or respect, or entirely losing job may have given rise to a harmful emotion which can incite anxiety. As earlier described, those medical issues which involve memory loss, dementia or Alzheimer’s disease may be a cause of this phobia.

Other than traumatic events, this phobia might also occur if one’s loved one is suffering from a particular condition related to memory loss such as dementia or alzheimer. This develops a fear of being forgotten by a loved one.

Researches have also established links between personality factors and athazogoraphibia where individual’s havinh shy nature or rate high on introversion are more likely to develop this phobia as compared to individuals who score low on introversion.

This phobia has high comorbidity with other medical and psychological conditions such as dementia or alzheimers, where fear of forgetting things becomes a major concern for individuals.

Athazagoraphobia Diagnosis and Tests

As discussed earlier, this phobia is not categorised as a mental disorder. But this phobia can be diagnosed depending on history and clinical representation. Those who have developed athazagoraphobia often found to have other diseases for example, dementia, depression or Alzheimer’s disease.

Treatments of Athazagoraphobia

The best possible remedy for athazagoraphobia is to reduce or overcome the fear. Given below are the treatment methods which can be adopted to help a patient with athazagoraphobia;

  • Cognitive-behavioral therapy
  • Medications
  • Hypnotherapy
  • Neuro-linguistic therapy
  • Energy psychology
  • Cognitive Behavioural Therapy

The purpose behind the application of Cognitive therapy is to help those patients who are suffering from athazagoraphobia in the identification of their feelings and emotions which are related to their fear or anxiety and providing them with assistance to replace their feelings with realistic thoughts or positive feelings.

Cognitive restructuring is the part of behavioural therapy which aims to provide help to those people who are suffering from athazagoraphobia as they have developed negative thought patterns about fear of being ignored or forgotten. Moreover, many people do not actually recognise their own potential and ability to handle the fearful situations. Cognitive restructuring aims to assist patients to get to know how to counter their negative thoughts and then change them to productive or positive thoughts which eventually decrease stress and avoid anxiety. This basically lets a patient to recognise negative thoughts and then develop thoughts to counter negativity and eventually replacing them with positive thoughts.


Antidepressants and anti anxiety drugs are often seen as remedy to stress related mental issues. Because these kinds of drugs are considered as vital in relieving the most severe symptoms which are found in patients with athazagoraphobia. Anxiolytics are considered helpful for a shorter period of time to use and are very effective to lessen the anxiety in a patient so it becomes relatively easy for them to handle their problems. Benzodiazepines and SSRIs may be used for symptoms management.


Phobia exists in the subconscious mind of a patient which means that it is impossible to comprehend that a specific kind of phobia is not dangerous,it doesn’t matter how much the patient tells himself. Our body and our mind will still react to fearful situations. Hypnosis intends to directly get in touch with our subconscious mind and try to alter our thinking patterns about phobias.

The process of hypnosis involves putting a person into a relaxed state of mind. Therapist will communicate with the client about the phobia without letting you lose control of yourself all the time. If the client does not exactly know the root cause of phobia then it might take some time to probe the root causes of the phobia.

After getting to know the cause of phobia the therapist will go further in treatment and will use various techniques to alter the responses of the client. This will make the client to slowly and calmly confront the phobia while being normal and calm.


Exercise is a most powerful weapon for the body against various diseases and mental stress. It is believed that a sound body has a sound mind. So, exercising on a daily basis can be helpful for a person to relieve stress and anxiety. Especially, cardiovascular exercise is thought to be extremely beneficial to get rid of stress. According to APA, exercising is a powerful factor to train and condition the mind and get it prepared to better deal with anxious situations. Aerobics is also considered effective and efficient to curb stress. Aerobic includes, swimming, biking, jogging, skiing and walking. Playing different kinds of sports such as  soccer, tennis and cricket can also help relieve negative emotions and stress. Being consistently engaged with such kinds of recreational activities is also helpful to relieve pain. Fearful situations tend to give rise to different physical symptoms and mental issues. Exercising will make a person focus on different exercising techniques and relieve his physical and mental pain.

FAQs about Athazagoraphobia?

Q1. What is phobia?

A Greek word which means fear. People who have developed any phobia are afraid of different situations or particular things about which they have bad experiences in the past and tend to avoid them in future. Whenever they come across such situations or things it gives rise to anxiety and other physical and mental symptoms.

Q2. What is Athazagoraphobia?

Athazagoraphobia is a kind of phobia in which people tend to develop fear of being ignored or forgotten and replaced by their own family members or loved ones. This fear makes people more vulnerable to develop Athazagoraphobia.

Q3. What are common causes of Athazagoraphobia?

There are few common causes of Athazagoraphobia. Few of them are, relationship failures, child abuse, neglect by parents or siblings in childhood.

Q4. Can Athazagoraphobia be cured by medicine?

Medicines do not necessarily cure the symptoms of Athazagoraphobia but it can be helpful in relieving the symptoms of Athazagoraphobia. Antidepressant drugs can significantly reduce anxiety and depression.


Concrete operational stage (A 5 point guide)

What is Concrete operational stage?

The concrete operational stage is the third stage in Piaget’s hypothesis of the subjective turn of events. This period occurs around the period of adolescence—it starts around age 7 and proceeds until roughly age 11—and is described by the advancement of thinking through the different stages of development that Piaget created. Thinking despite everything will, in general, be concrete; kids become considerably more coherent and complex in their deduction during this phase of improvement. 

While this is a significant stage all by itself, it additionally fills in as a significant change between prior phases of advancement and the coming stage where children will figure out how to think all the more uniquely and speculatively. 

Children at this age become increasingly knowledgeable about solving concrete issues, yet they still experience difficulty with forming dynamic thoughts. 

This phase of psychological development likewise fills in as a significant change between the preoperational and formal operational stages. Reversibility is a significant advance toward further developed intuition, even though at this stage it just applies to concrete circumstances.

While kids at prior phases of improvement are egocentric, those in the concrete operational stage become more socio-centric. As such, they can comprehend that others have their own contemplations. Children now know that others have novel points of view, yet they may not yet have the wisdom to figure precisely how or what that other individual is encountering or thinking about. 

This developing capacity to cognitively control data and consider the considerations of others will assume a basic job in the formal operational phase of advancement when rationale and conceptual ideas become basic. 

Concrete Operational Stage 

Ages: 7 to 11 Years

Some Points: 

Ø  During this stage, kids start to contemplating concrete problems

Ø  They start to comprehend the idea of preservation; that the measure of fluid in a short, wide cup is equivalent to that in a tall, thin glass, for instance 

Ø  Their thinking turns out to be progressively legitimate and sorted out, yet at the same time extremely concrete 

Ø  Children start utilizing inductive rationale or thinking from physical data to a general rule that will always apply

 While youngsters are still concrete and strict in their intuition now being developed, they become significantly more adroit at utilizing logic. The egocentrism of the past stage starts to vanish as children become better at contemplating how others may see a circumstance. 

While thinking turns out to be considerably more intelligent during the concrete operational state, it can likewise be inflexible. While children are developing, they will generally battle with unique and theoretical ideas.

During this stage, youngsters likewise become less egocentric and start to consider how others may think and feel. Children in the concrete operational stage additionally start to comprehend that their contemplations are one of a kind to them and that not every other person fundamentally shares their musings, emotions, and assessments.

When does the concrete operational stage happen? 

The concrete operational stage, for the most part, begins when your youngster hits 7 years of age and endures till they arrive at the formal operational stage. Consider it a transitional stage between the two prior phases of advancement (sensorimotor and preoperational stages) and the fourth stage (formal operational stage). 

Different analysts scrutinized Piaget’s course of events. They indicated that kids as youthful as 6 and even 4 years of age, can do the psychological undertakings that portray this stage (or if nothing else a few characteristics of this stage.) So don’t be astonished when your 4-year-old brings up something coherent that you didn’t consider first. 

Characteristics of the concrete operational stage 

So what’s available for you both throughout the following 4 years? Here’s a rundown of the principal attributes of this significant phase of advancement:


There are two sections to grouping. One is arranging things into classes. Your kid as of now bunches roses and creatures into two separate classifications. 

At this stage, they can go above and beyond. They comprehend that there are sub-classes inside a gathering, similar to yellow and red blossoms or creatures that fly and creatures that swim. 

Understanding Logic 

Piaget confirmed that kids in the concrete operational stage were genuinely adept at the utilization of inductive rationale (inductive thinking). Inductive rationale includes going from a particular encounter to a general standard. 

A case of inductive rationale would see that each time you are around a feline; you have irritated eyes, a runny nose, and a swollen throat. You may then deduce from that experience that you are hypersensitive to felines. 

Then again, kids at this age experience issues utilizing deductive rationale, which includes utilizing a general guideline to decide the result of a particular occasion. For instance, a kid may discover that A=B, and B=C, yet May at the present battle to comprehend that A=C.

 Understanding Reversibility 

One of the most significant advancements in this stage is a comprehension of reversibility or mindfulness that activities can be turned around. A case of this is having the option to turn around the request for connections between mental classifications. 

A case of reversibility is that a youngster may have the option to perceive that their pooch is a Labrador, that a Labrador is a canine, and that a pooch is a creature. 

Children Become Less Egocentric 

The concrete operational stage is likewise set apart by diminishes in egocentrism. While kids in the former phase of advancement (the preoperational stage) battle to take the point of view of others, kids in the concrete stage can consider things the way that others see them. 

In Piaget’s Three-Mountain Task, for instance, youngsters in the concrete operational stage can portray how a mountain scene would look to an eyewitness situated inverse them.

At the end of the day, kids are not just ready to begin considering how others view and experience the world; they even begin to utilize this kind of data when settling on choices or taking care of issues.


One of the key characteristics of the concrete operational stage is the capacity to concentrate on numerous pieces of an issue. While kids in the preoperational phase of advancement will in general focus on only one part of a circumstance or issue, those in the concrete operational stage can take part in what is known as “decentration.” They can focus on numerous parts of a circumstance simultaneously, which assumes a basic job in the comprehension of preservation. 


This comprehends something that can remain the equivalent in amount even though it appears to be unique. For example, that bundle of play dough remains the same amount whether you squash it flat or fold it into a ball. 


This is attached to protection. Your kid needs to make sense of decentration with the goal that they can ration accurately. It’s everything about focusing on a few factors simultaneously. 

A line of five paper cuts is a column of five paper cuts, regardless of how far separated you space them. At this stage, your youngster understands this since they can control number and length simultaneously. 


It’s everything about cognitively arranging a gathering of things into a request. Presently your kid can sort from the tallest to the least tall or the most slender to the broadest. 


This is the moment that you’ve been hanging tight for! Your kid is not, at this point, egocentric and completely centered around themselves. They’re ready to comprehend that Mom has her considerations, sentiments, and timetable. 


You pour a tall cup of pop into a shorter cup. Does your youngster calmly acknowledge the shorter cup? Likely, at this stage they’ve made sense of the sum in the primary cup doesn’t change because the new cup is shorter than the first. You got it: this is about preservation. 

Exercises for the concrete operational stage 

Good to go? Since you know how your youngster’s reasoning is changing, here’s a rundown of fun exercises that you can do together to fortify these cognitive capacities. 

Learn during supper 

Take a little container of milk and empty it into a tall, restricted glass. Take the second container of milk and empty it into a short glass. Ask your youngster which glass contains more. 

Look at pieces of candy 

Proceed onward to pieces of candy for dessert. You get one as well! (This is difficult work and you merit a treat.) Break one sweet treat into pieces, spread them out a bit, and request that your youngster pick between the two confections — one broken and one flawless. The visual prop makes it simpler to discover that the treats are the equivalent. It’s about protection. 

Work with squares 

Lego pieces can likewise educate protection. Construct an enormous pinnacle. And afterward, let your kid split it up. (Indeed, the Legos may skitter under the lounge chair.) Now ask them, “Where there were more pieces in the assembled tower or the dispersed mass?” 

Prepare treats 

Math can be entertaining! Prepare chocolate chip treats and utilize the estimating cups to give your kid a decent feeling of division. Discussion about which fixing speaks to the greatest sum. Have your youngster show them all together. And afterward, be valiant and twofold the formula for additional training. As your kid gets increasingly capable, proceed onward to word issues. This encourages them to build up their theoretical reasoning. 

Tell stories 

Got additional time? Take your youngster’s preferred story and type it up. At that point cut the story into passages. Together, you can place the story into the arrangement. Make this a stride further and urge your kid to get one of the characters. What do they do straightaway? What do they feel? What do they wear to an extravagant dress gathering? 

Play in the tub 

In case you’re a science fan, have your kid skim various items in the bath to see which sink and which coast. Your youngster won’t experience difficulty reviewing the various strides in the investigation. So urge them to move past this and think about things in turn around. Would they be able to disclose to you which step was last? Furthermore, which step preceded that?

Plan a gathering 

Request that your kid assists you with arranging an unexpected gathering for Grandma (or another adored one). They’ll need to think about Grandma’s preferred nourishments and even what sort of a current Grandma would need. It’s everything about moving past their egocentric circle. What’s more, draw out the chocolate chip treats you prepared. On the off chance that you multiplied the formula, you’ll have a bounty.

Frequently Asked Questions:

What does the concrete operational stage mean? 

As the name suggests, the concrete operational phase of development can be characterized as the phase of cognitive advancement where a youngster is fit for playing out an assortment of mental activities and considerations utilizing concrete ideas. 

Why is the concrete operational stage significant? 

The concrete operational stage is the third stage in Piaget’s hypothesis of the subjective turn of events. While this is a significant stage all by itself, it additionally fills in as an important change between prior phases of advancement and the coming stage where children will figure out how to think all the more dynamically and theoretically. 





Interested in Piaget’s stages of development? Here are some links to novels about this on Amazon:

Dissociative identity disorder (A 5 point guide)

This blog will be about the concepts that constitute dissociative identity disorder which are the definition of dissociative, definition of multiple personality disorder, the diagnosis of a dissociative disorder, meaning of split personality disorder, the meaning of an identity disorder, the mental health of patients, the treatment of this psychological disorder, and the study of this psychological disorder.


The definition of dissociative is to be unaware of the identity, consciousness, and environment of the person. Most people have a tendency to become dissociated from the world. This is because being dissociative is one of the defence mechanisms proposed by the school of psychoanalysis. This enables the person to get away from stressful events by looking at these events from an outside perspective.

In this case, the person may seem numb of all the stressful events since the person is not focusing on the present event but focusing in some aspect of his or her psyche that can preoccupy them from the present stressor. This can help people temporarily since the need to escape from danger is natural and this is a necessity when a solution has not been made to a present problem. When this defence mechanism is used almost always, this can lead to escaping any kind of problem even minor ones that aren’t used for survival purposes and may lead to an obstruction of the self and present sensations.

Dissociative identity disorder

Dissociative identity disorder is the kind of disorder that is characterized by an appearance of a disintegrated self showing from the person’s distress of the interactions and experiences that have happened to the patient which the patient is unaware of. Patients who are diagnosed with this kind of disorder may appear to have another self to other people and these identities tend to be denial about their real identity. Alters are the identities made by the patient that made the diagnosis. These alters have a different perception of time since some alters are living in the past and some alters are living in the present.

Because of these alters, the patient may feel memory problems from the alters’ experiences with the world. Alters may have different personalities to a real identity. Alters can also be similar to the characteristics of some animals. You can learn more about dissociative identity disorder by buying this book on this website.

Multiple personality disorder

Multiple personality disorder is the early term for dissociative identity disorder. This was changed since the patient merely has separate identities of one personality. Also, some patients with this kind of psychological disorder don’t usually have alternate identities. This kind of psychological disorder hasn’t been researched too much since this is a rare and controversial disorder of all the psychological disorders. 

This is because psychologists may think that this kind of psychological disorder may be a form of role-playing to most affected patients. Most affected patients were more likely to have imaginary friends and to day-dream when they were in their early childhood years. The appearance of imaginary friends may have been what these patients have been role-playing within their early years. Also, some criminals have used this kind of psychological disorder as a defence to get minimal years in imprisonment which makes most psychologists careful about giving this diagnosis to possible patients. 

Dissociative disorder

A dissociative disorder is a kind of psychological disorder where there is a dysfunction of memory, consciousness, and identity. The main dissociative disorders are dissociative amnesia, dissociative identity disorder, and depersonalization or derealization disorder. These kinds of psychological disorders are related to the over-usage of the defence mechanism of dissociation. You can learn more about dissociative disorders by buying this book on this website.

The common symptoms of these disorders are memory loss of specific periods, distorted perception of the environment, significant stress from environmental interactions, and associated mental health problems. Patients who have this disorder tend to present to the doctor some disturbing flashbacks that have been intrusive in their minds. Research has found that 75% of people experience at least one depersonalization/derealization episode in their lives with only 2% meeting the full criteria for chronic episodes of this phenomenon. Women are more likely than men to be diagnosed with this kind of disorder. 

Split personality disorder

A split personality disorder tends to be associated with multiple personality disorder which is the older diagnostic label of dissociative identity disorder. This kind of disorder is characterized as the loss of memory of some time and fragmented experiences that the patient isn’t fully aware of. A person diagnosed with this kind of disorder may feel uncertain about his or her identity and who the person is. These patients may feel the presence of other identities with their own names, voices, personal histories, and behavioural mannerisms.

The symptoms of this kind of disorder may manifest in people with a borderline personality disorder. This kind of personality disorder is described as having unstable emotions and relationships due to the unhealthy and manipulative behaviours of these patients. This kind of personality disorder was named as such since these patients show that they are between the episodes of neurosis and psychosis. These kinds of patients tend to appear to have two or more personalities since they tend to fear abandonment which makes them manipulative to a loved one and fear that they may hurt the loved one.

Dissociative personality disorder

Dissociative identity disorder which was formerly known as multiple personality disorder is thought to be a complex psychological condition that is usually caused by many factors such as severe trauma during early childhood which is extreme, repetitive physical, sexual or emotional abuse from parents or other relatives. This kind of disorder is a severe form of dissociation which is a mental process which produces a lack of connection in a person’s thoughts, memories, feelings, actions, or sense of identity. The dissociative aspect of this disorder is thought to be a coping mechanism which is when the person literally shuts off or dissociates himself or herself from a situation or experience that’s too violent, traumatic, or painful to absorb with his or her conscious self. Several instances of true stories of this kind of disorder are very rare. 

When this kind of disorder occurs, this disorder can occur at any age. The episodes of this kind of disorder can be triggered by a variety of real and symbolic traumas such as mild events like being involved in a minor traffic accident, adult illness, or stress. A reminder of childhood abuse for a parent who has this kind of disorder can trigger him or her when their child reaches the same age at which the parent was abused. You can learn more about the traumatic events that can cause this kind of disorder by buying this book on this website.

DID disorder

Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is a rare mental health condition in which two or more distinct identities or personality states are present in and alternately take control of an affected person. Some affected people describe this kind of disorder as an experience of possession. The affected person also experiences memory loss that is too extensive to be explained by ordinary forgetfulness. In psychiatric practice, the vast majority of people with this kind of disorder do not present as if these patients have multiple personalities. 

Instead, these affected patients present with a number of both dissociative and post-traumatic symptoms and many apparently non-trauma-related issues such as depression, substance abuse, eating disorders, and anxiety. In fact, many affected people with this kind of disorder are high-functioning members of society with good careers before some crisis or build-up of stressors leads to a sudden and catastrophic breakdown which arouses the symptoms of this kind of disorder. By experiencing trauma in childhood, the affected person takes on different identities and behaviours to protect himself or herself. As the affected person develops more of these behaviours, these kinds of behaviours become more fully formed until it looks like the affected person has different identities but these different parts of the affected person’s identity don’t work together properly.

Disassociative personality disorder

An inordinately high number of people with dissociative identity disorder have experienced some kind of childhood sexual trauma. Studies thought that the trauma is troubling that the affected person breaks off from the selves and creates other personalities that don’t have this kind of problem. These affected people may also have a personality that stops developing from the age at which the trauma happened. The therapist and the patient may search together for other personalities that remember this kind of trauma so that they can hash it out and work on this trauma. 

Once this trauma is addressed,  the therapy can go a long way towards ending this kind of disorder in a patient. People with this kind of disorder have experienced a fragmentation or splintering of their identity rather than a growth of new and separate identities. For the vast majority of people with this kind of disorder, people switching between alters is involuntary and can’t be identified by a casual observer at all. You can learn more about the different identities that may arise from this kind of disorder by buying this book on this website.

Dissociative identity disorder (A guide)

What is dissociative identity disorder

Dissociative identity disorder is when an affected person has two or more distinct personalities or identities. This kind of disorder was previously known as multiple personality disorder. An affected person with this kind of disorder often has a main personality which is usually passive, dependent, and depressed. This kind of disorder has two forms which are possession and non-possession form.

In the possession form, the identities manifest as though these identities were outside agents usually a supernatural being or spirit or another person who has taken control of the person which causes the person to speak and act in a very different way. In such cases, the different identities are observable to common people.  Nonpossession forms tend to be less or not observable. These affected people may feel a sudden alteration in their sense of self or identity such as feeling as though these people were observers of their own speech, emotions, and actions, rather than the outside agent. 

Identity disorder

Many people with dissociative identity disorder have grown up in an abusive family environment where they are sworn to secrecy and where hiding becomes a way of life. In adult years, the stigma and sense of shame around both sexual abuse and mental illness is a strong factor in making these people’s history and the condition known. One of the obvious symptoms of this disorder is a disconnection from or avoidance of both the trauma and the dissociated parts of our personality. This is why this disorder tends to be hidden from most people.

DID mental health

Signs and symptoms of dissociative identity disorder (DID) include losses of time, memory lapses, blackouts, often being accused of lying, finding what seem to be strange items among one’s possessions, having apparent strangers recognize this disorder in patients as someone else, feeling unreal, and feeling like more than one person. While structured interviews by a mental health practitioner can help with the accuracy of this diagnosis, there is no specific diagnostic test for this disorder. Therefore, mental health professionals perform a mental health interview, ruling out other mental disorders, and referring the client for a medical evaluation to rule out a physical cause for symptoms that may indicate the appearance of this disorder. If the patient has this disorder, he or she may experience depression, mood swings, anxiety and panic attacks, suicidal thoughts and feelings, self-harm, headaches, hearing voices, sleep disorders, phobias, alcohol and drug abuse, obsessive-compulsive behaviour and various physical health problems.

This means that this disorder can become comorbid with another psychological disorder. If the patient feels suicidal or don’t feel if the patient is able to keep himself or herself safe, the patient may need urgent help. It is important that if the patient having any suicidal thoughts he or she should seek help immediately. Media depictions such as this one here of patients with this disorder are less likely to be accurate and psychologists advise people to not believe that this disorder can be explained by several movies or books alone.

Dissociation treatment

Psychotherapy is the primary treatment for patients with different dissociative disorders. This kind of therapy which is also known as talk therapy, counselling or psychosocial therapy, involves talking about the patient’s disorder and related issues with a mental health professional. The therapist will work to help the patient understand the cause of his or her condition and to form new ways of coping with stressful circumstances. Over time, the therapist may help the patient talk more about the trauma he or she experienced but only when the patient has the coping skills and relationship with the therapist to safely have these conversations.

Dissociation psychology

Dissociation is a psychological experience in which people feel disconnected from their sensory experience, sense of self, or personal backgrounds. This phenomenon is experienced as a feeling of intense alienation or unreality where the person suddenly loses their sense of where they are, who they are, of what they are doing. This phenomenon often occurs in response to trauma and seems to have a protected characteristic in that this phenomenon allows people to feel disconnected from traumatic events. The symptoms of this phenomenon often go away on their time. 

This experience may take hours, days, or weeks. The person may need treatment if this phenomenon is happening because the person had an extremely troubling experience or the person may have a mental health disorder like schizophrenia. Different kinds of dissociative disorders exist that are considered as diagnostic labels in the accredited manual. These disorders are dissociative amnesia, dissociative identity disorder, and depersonalisation or derealization disorder.


Dissociative identity disorder is one kind of dissociative disorder that is described as the person’s loss of identity, memory loss of certain events, and different perceptions of fragments of the person’s identity. This disorder has been associated with other disorders that may have been caused by traumatic events such as obsessive-compulsive disorder or post-traumatic stress disorder. Several psychotherapies can help people with this disorder but this disorder tends to happen for a lifetime in a person’s life. You can comment below on your thoughts about this disorder and your perceptions about this disorder in patients.

FAQ Questions

Does a person with multiple personality disorder know they have it?

A person with multiple personality disorder does not know they have this disorder.

Can a person with dissociative identity disorder live a normal life?

A person with dissociative identity disorder can live a normal life even if he or she may feel like memories of specific events are missing.

What do dissociative identity disorder voices sound like?

The dissociative identity disorder voices sound like the different identities in the person with this disorder.

Can OCD turn into schizophrenia?

OCD can turn into schizophrenia as recently found in research studies.

Can schizophrenics love?

Schizophrenics can’t love another person since they become distant when having this disorder.


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Psychology Today. (2019, February). Dissociative Identity Disorder (Multiple Personality Disorder). Retrieved from here.

Rethink Mental Illness. (n. d.). Borderline personality disorder. Retrieved from here.Rethink Mental Illness. (n. d.). Dissociation and dissociative identity disorder (DID). Retrieved from here.

Hypomania (A complete guide)

This blog will be talking about the definition of hypomania, the definition of mania, the contents of a manic episode, the symptoms of mania, the symptoms of hypomania, manic behaviour, mania in bipolar disorder, signs of mania, the difference between mania and hypomania, the behaviour when in mania, and the treatment for these episodes.

What is Hypomania?

Hypomania is a mood episode where the symptoms of mania apply but this episode makes the patient more productive than that made by mania. This episode tends to last for only a few days, such as four days. This episode allows the person to be more proactive in life and doesn’t seem to show a mental disorder unless the patient has been considered to be an opposite character to this mood such as introversion.

This kind of episode is a symptom of bipolar II disorder. Bipolar II disorder is a mood disorder that is characterized by at least one hypomanic episode and one depressive episode. The hypomanic episode has the symptoms of a manic episode where the person is excessively euphoric. The patient will also feel like they can do anything and will apply to many activities but without delusions and hallucinations in a manic episode.


Mania is a mood episode that is described as an overjoyed mood where the patient may feel that he/she has boundless energy. Mania is a symptom of bipolar I disorder. Bipolar I disorder is a mood disorder where the diagnosis will only be met when the patient has experienced at least one manic episode and a depressive episode. As mentioned before, mania has similar symptoms of hypomania but without risk-taking behaviours and psychotic symptoms of a manic episode.

A manic episode can make a person believe that he/she can do anything without the need to know about restrictions and limitations of the person. The person believes that he/she is a hero where there is no feeling of weakness. The person may also be described as someone in a happy mood but this mood is not a normal expression of happiness. The person may also engage in risky behaviours such as casual sex encounters, over-spending in malls, get into fights with street gangs, and jump on a running vehicle in the course of a manic episode.


A manic episode is another name for an episode of mania. Manic depression was the name before the bipolar disorder was made the name of this mental disorder. Manic episodes make patients have racing thoughts and fast speech. This can make listeners of the affected patients be annoyed and interrupt the patient from their fast conversation.

This may make patients get irritable about the listener’s disenchanted response. A manic episode can make a person highly optimistic. This kind of episode can also make the person have high self-confidence in his/her abilities and this confidence was not formidable in the person’s character. You can learn more about manic episodes by buying this book on this website.

Manic episode

A manic episode is a mood episode that is characterized by a happy and excited mood. This kind of episode may make the affected patient to not being able to function properly in life. This is because this kind of episode includes the symptom of risk-taking behaviours such as over-spending saved money for things that don’t matter to the patient and having unsafe sex with multiple partners. These kinds of behaviours are what makes these affected patients get into a psychiatrist or psychologist in the first place.

Some of these affected patients may be caught by the police since some risk-taking behaviours may be robbing a bank. This kind of episode usually lasts for weeks which disturbs the loved ones of the patient who is suffering the consequences of an uncontrollable episode. These affected patients may have racing thoughts which makes them talk to people at faster speeds. These affected patients may also become aggressive to people who find their behaviours annoying and disturbing.


A hyper manic episode is a kind of manic episode that is permanent. This means that a patient who is having this episode will be more likely to be in a euphoric mood for the rest of his or her life. This also means that risk-taking behaviours in this kind of episode will be plenty considering that this is permanent. This is not considered as a disorder in the DSM-5 but another term used by medical practitioners to mood disorders not otherwise specified.

This kind of diagnosis is reached when the patient’s symptoms do not reach the minimum criteria for mood disorders. Patients who have this episode tend to not sleep at all and move around when they want to. Most women are diagnosed with this kind of mental condition. You can read about a person with this kind of mental condition by buying this book on this website.

Mania definition

Mania is defined as the extreme high in the mood disorder of bipolar disorder. This kind of episode can be described as an extremely euphoric mood. These affected patients tend to be filled with heavy bouts of joy. Joy is not the only emotion that is in this episode but also irritability in some patients on this episode.

These affected patients tend to not eat. This is because these affected patients are more inclined to move around. These affected patients have a hard time only sitting all the time. These affected people also have large amounts of new ideas that are not stopping in creating more of these ideas.

Define mania

Mania is defined as a kind of mood that is described as a mood filled with full energy. This kind of mood is also characterized by irritability to most male patients who are diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Patients who are having this mood will feel more confident in doing activities that they have never done before. Patients who are affected by this kind of mood are more likely to get distracted to several ideas and conversations they are encountering. 

Sometimes, less degree of mood is felt in between this kind of episode. This is because this kind of episode is not considered as a permanent episode since this kind of episode only lasts for a week. The appearance of this kind of episode is not expected by the affected patient. You can read a story about a patient who was diagnosed with bipolar disorder with mania as a dominant mood by buying this book on this website

Mania symptoms

Various symptoms of mania make this kind of mood to the depressive episode in bipolar disorder. These symptoms have a physical and psychological kind. Most of the time, the psychological symptoms are usually felt by affected patients under this kind of mood which makes most patients want to keep having this kind of mood.

The diagnosis of this mood can also be reached by the observation of loved ones. This is true if the patient has been considered to act differently before this kind of mood happened to the patient. For instance, a rational and inhibitory person may become illogical and overactive in this kind of mood. Here are the specific symptoms of this kind of mood in bipolar disorder.

  • A sense of self-importance
  • Ideas tend to change from one subject to another subject
  • Has more energy than the normal energy seen
  • Full of ideas and positive thoughts
  • More extraverted than the normal character
  • Has difficulty in concentrating

Manic episodes

Manic episodes are symptoms of bipolar I disorder. Bipolar I disorder is the kind of bipolar disorder that needs to have at least 1 manic episode and 1 depressive episode. These manic episodes tend to last for a week and may cause danger to the client’s community. This is because the client may feel that the mood can’t be controlled and may do dangerous behaviours such as rape and murder which can lead to imprisonment. 

Hypomania symptoms

The symptoms of hypomania are the same as manic symptoms. This is because these two moods are associated with each other. The difference with both these moods is that hypomania is milder than mania. Hypomania also makes the affected patient more productive than a patient in a mania. Also, hypomania is a mood requirement for a diagnosis of bipolar II disorder.

This kind of bipolar disorder needs at least one hypomanic episode and one depressive episode. Hypomania can be detected in a patient when the patient acts as a different character before this mood disorder started. This can be verified by reports of loved ones of the patient, especially parents and close friends. Without further ado, here are the following symptoms of hypomania.

  • Seems to have high energy
  • Is overly optimistic
  • Tends to get a lot of jobs to do which the patient can or can’t do it all
  • Has slight irritability
  • Does not engage in risk-taking behaviours such as over-spending and casual sex

Hypomania meaning

The meaning of hypomania is the mood of less mania. This is because this kind of mania is a sub-portion of the umbrella term which is mania. This means that hypomania is a kind of mania that is not too severe as mania. As mentioned before, mania includes risk-taking behaviours but hypomania doesn’t have these kinds of behaviours as symptoms.

Manic behaviour

Manic behaviour tends to be overly excited behaviour. Patients who are in this kind of mood episode will become more talkative than before. This talkative character will be seen as moving in and off-topic because of the flight of ideas in the patient’s mind. This flight of ideas makes patients think about many different topics that can run through their minds all day without stopping. 

This can make patients have sleepless nights since these ideas make the patient move around. This can also make patients irritable when they say these kinds of ideas to another person and finds the person’s disinterest on what they are saying. The patient may also engage in unhealthy behaviours such as binge-eating and smoking. These kinds of behaviours can lead to more of these kinds of episodes that will continue causing distress upon the person.

Mania meaning

The meaning of mania is the kind of mood that is the enthusiastic mood in bipolar disorder. This kind of mood episode is the opposite of depressive episode in this kind of mood disorder. People who are in this episode are quick in moving anywhere they can. These people are more likely to be energetic in any situation despite the person’s usual reservations for a kind of situation. 

Psychotic symptoms are rampant in this mood episode. These symptoms are not seen in patients with hypomania. This mood episode can make people go through big decisions without thinking. These big decisions will only serve to cause stress upon the patient who is in a manic episode. These people have overconfidence in their abilities that they get irritable when other people don’t believe in their beliefs.

Bipolar mania

Mania in bipolar I disorder can cause significant dysfunction in one’s life. This can cause the patient distress at work when the person feels their thoughts are racing at ever minute. This can cause mistakes in doing different records at work. Speech is also disrupted with these people since different topics can be very influential to come out to speak out despite the patient is holding a meeting with the employer on a status report.

What is a manic episode

A manic episode is an expansive mood that makes the person feel deviant to his or her community, cause danger in the community, distressed about the mood, and dysfunction in work, school, and social life. This kind of episode can make people feel more motivated to reach their goals. This episode doesn’t need to be the first episode felt by the patient in the duration of bipolar I disorder. This episode can happen before and after a depressive episode in this kind of bipolar disorder.

These people may also tend to do a lot of projects and doing none of them. Some patients may finish these projects all day long without any need for rest. This doesn’t mean that people with these symptoms may have a debilitating manic episode. The mood episode should be able to cause the patient significant distress, danger, deviance, and dysfunction in different areas in life.

Hypomanic definition

Hypomanic is what is labelled on a person who may have symptoms of mania but these kinds of symptoms are less severe. This kind of episode does not cause significant distress to the patient. This kind of episode doesn’t cause significant dysfunction in the patient’s important areas in life such as school, work, or social life. This kind of episode can make the person more creative and powerful than not having this kind of state which makes the patient miss taking medication only to be in this kind of state.

Hypomania definition

Hypomania is the kind of mood that is described to be productive and cheerful. This kind of episode makes people want to complete their work all day long and not feel tired. This kind of episode is more than the normal mood of the patient but does not create severe side effects, unlike in a manic episode. People in this kind of episode will become more confident and important than they were before. 

This kind of mood episode can happen on its own. This is different from a manic episode which must occur in patients with bipolar I disorder. This means that a person can have a hypomanic episode even when not having the Symptoms of bipolar disorder. You can learn more about this kind of episode and how to manage this episode by buying this book on this website.

Manic episode symptoms

The symptoms of the manic episode are characterized by an enthusiastic and joyous mood. The duration of this kind of episode should last at least a week to be considered as the diagnosis of this kind of episode. This elevated mood can be observed by loved ones who have known the patient for a long time to consider the patient’s mood as this kind of episode. Here are the symptoms of a manic episode.

  • Difficulties in maintaining attention
  • Extreme involvement in pleasurable activities
  • Motivated to make new goals that may not be completed by the patient
  • Has caused personal distress in the patient’s life
  • Has less need to sleep or eat

Manic vs hypomanic

Differences between a manic episode and hypomanic episode have been found by researchers who have focused their attention on the diagnosis of bipolar disorder. A hypomanic episode can be treated by changes in lifestyle alone, unlike a manic episode. A manic episode is more severe than a hypomanic episode. Patients who are undergoing a manic episode are more likely to get institutionalized than patients who are experiencing a hypomanic episode.

A manic episode can cause more significant distress to the patient than a patient with a hypomanic episode. Manic episodes have psychotic symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations than hypomanic episodes. In diagnosing the patient for a manic episode, the person’s mood episode should last for a week. A hypomanic episode tends to last for only 4 days.

Signs of mania

The signs of mania can be detected once the person knows the symptoms of this mood episode. The diagnosis of this kind of episode can be made if the patient has experienced three or more symptoms of this kind of episode. Mood changes will be a dominant sign of this kind of episode to loved ones since they know the patient more than most people who may see this patient. Changes in energy levels are also observed in these patients who are experiencing this kind of episode.

What does mania mean

Mania is an abnormal euphoric mood state. People who are in this kind of state will face extreme insomnia since these people will feel that they have no need for sleep. This is because people can’t control themselves when they’re in this kind of state. People who are undergoing this kind of episode will be more extraverted and loud in speaking.

These people are also prone to poor judgment. This can lead these people to feel to create poor choices which is one of the reasons why this kind of state can cause severe dysfunction in life. This kind of state can be combined with a depressive state and this kind of condition is called mixed mania. You can learn more about mixed mania by buying this book on this website

Manic bipolar episode

The manic episode in bipolar disorder is the high felt by the patient, unlike the incoming depressive episode. The patient will feel that thoughts are speeding in his or her head. The patient may behave in inappropriate ways in this kind of episode. The patient may feel increased sexual arousal which can lead to many unsafe and casual sexual experiences with strangers.

Mania and hypomania

Mania and hypomania are two of the euphoric mood episodes in the two kinds of bipolar disorder. Mania is a euphoric mood that is characterized by severe behaviour that may cause the patient to be hospitalized or penalized by the police force. Hypomania is also a euphoric mood but this kind of mood is not severe enough to cause the patient’s hospitalization. This kind of episode may even lead the patient to function better in life.

Both of these mood episodes can be found in schizoaffective disorder. This kind of disorder is a psychotic kind of disorder where mood episodes can also happen. Mania occurs in patients who are diagnosed with bipolar I disorder. While hypomania occurs in patients who have bipolar II disorder.

What is manic

Manic is the behaviour of a person in a manic episode. This episode is characterized by high energy and reckless behaviour. People who are in this episode tend to have less need for sleep since they feel they can do anything for a whole day. These people also tend to cause distress on other people due to their grandiose delusions and irritability.

Manic feeling

The feeling of a manic episode is an exhilarating feeling. This is because of the person who thinks that he or she cannot be stopped by anyone. These people often find this episode to make them better people. This is why most patients don’t take their medications to treat the symptoms of this episode. 

This feeling also makes them highly productive on the goals they want to accomplish in life. This makes them lose their sleeping hours for the making of these goals. These people also tend to be irritable if people start getting in their way. This episode cannot be easily controlled by people since this episode may arise from the lack of emotion regulation.

Whats mania

Mania is the high episode in bipolar I disorder. This kind of episode will swing from this kind of high mood to the low mood of depression. Most people who have this mood disorder tend to have this kind of episode for a week. This episode may also last for 4 days if the mood swings are regularly shifting.

Mania disorder

Mania in bipolar I disorder has more observable symptoms than hypomania. This is because this kind of episode tends to make people do behaviours that can create legal consequences for them. For instance, a patient may cause rape to another person during this episode. This can cause the patient to be punished even if the patient was only experiencing a dysregulation of mood.

The patient may also appear to have a lot to say in the conversation. Listeners may see them as an annoyance since they can’t stop talking. This can lead to the patient getting angry at the listener for insulting his or her behaviour. This may lead to the patient engaging in dangerous fights with people who may try to bring the patient to justice in the court.

Manic laughter

The laughter in people who are having a manic episode is described as inappropriate to the situation. This is because people who are having this episode tend to laugh unexpectedly. This can happen when an idea is compulsive to the patient and needs to be released. This symptom can also make these patients diagnosed with a psychotic disorder.

Hypomania treatment

Different kinds of treatment are available for patients with this kind of mood episode. Medications that stabilize mood are the first kind of treatment used for these patients. This is because the patient can respond to therapy better if they weren’t in a hyper mood. An example of this medication is lithium which is usually prescribed for the healing of this mood episode.

Home remedies can also be used to alleviate symptoms of this mood episode. The patient should have a regular and healthy diet to give enough nutrients for the brain to minimize the mood dysregulation that causes this mood episode. Exercise can also alleviate the symptoms of this mood episode. The patient who had enough sleep will save himself or herself from this mood episode.


Hypomania is a kind of mood episode in bipolar II disorder that is described with productivity and hyper mood. This kind of mood episode and mania are similar in symptoms but mania has more severe symptoms such as engaging in risky behaviours. Treatments are used to alleviate symptoms of this kind of mood episode and get the patient away from emotional distress. You can comment below on your thoughts about this kind of mood episode and share your experiences with this kind of mood episode.

FAQ Questions

What are the examples of hypomania?

The examples of hypomania are increased sexual desire and extreme irritability and anger in patients.

What is a mild form of bipolar called?

The mild form of bipolar is called cyclothymia.

What is type 3 bipolar?

Type 3 bipolar is the non-medical term of cyclothymia.

Is Bipolar 1 or 2 worse?

The bipolar I disorder is worse than the bipolar II disorder since a full manic episode is present in this kind of bipolar disorder.

What are the signs of bipolar in women?

The signs of bipolar in women are the same as men such as extremely irritable mood, grandiose delusions, suicidal tendencies, and risky behaviours.


Avon and Wiltshire Mental Health Partnership. (n. d.). Hypomania and mania. Retrieved from here.

Bipolar UK. (n. d.). Bipolar and the “allure of mania”. Retrieved from here.

Bupa UK. (n. d.). Bipolar disorder. Retrieved from here.

Cogora Limited. (2018, June). ‘A complete personality change’ – managing bipolar disorder. Retrieved from here.

Crown. (2019, March). Symptoms Bipolar Disorder. NHS. Retrieved from here.

Knott, L. (2017, August). Bipolar Disorder. Patient. Retrieved from here.

Mental Health Foundation. (2019, May). Bipolar disorder. Retrieved from here.

Mental Health Foundation. (n. d.). Mental Health Statistics: bipolar. Retrieved from here.

Mental Health UK. (n. d.). Symptoms of bipolar disorder. Retrieved from here.

Mind. (2016, August). Hypomania and mania. Retrieved from here.

Rethink Mental Illness. (n. d.). Bipolar Disorder. Retrieved from here.Warner, H. (2013, March). Bipolar mum: ‘It was as if someone stole our mother’. Dailymail. Retrieved from here.

Insomnia (A 7 point guide)

Insomnia is a sleep disorder bringing persistent difficulties with falling, and staying, asleep.

What is insomnia?

Insomnia is a sleep disorder that is characterized by having difficulty falling and/ or staying asleep. People with this condition usually have difficulty falling asleep, wake up often during the night, and have trouble going back to sleep. The condition can be short-term (acute) or can last a long time (chronic). It may also come and go. Acute insomnia lasts from one night to a few weeks. Insomnia is chronic when it happens at least three nights a week for three months or more.

Acute insomnia lasts from one night to a few weeks. 

What are the different types of insomnia?

Primary insomnia: This means your sleep problems aren’t linked to any other health condition or problem.

Secondary insomnia: This means you have trouble sleeping because of a health condition like asthma, depression, arthritis, cancer or heartburn, or some other contributor like pain, medication or substance use (e.g. alcohol).

What are the signs and symptoms of insomnia?

Symptoms of insomnia include sleepiness or drowsiness during the day, fatigue, grumpiness and problems with concentration or memory.

Other things which point to insomnia are trouble falling asleep in the first place, failure to sleep through the night, waking up earlier than usual and irritability.

Insomnia itself can often be a symptom of another problem. You should call your doctor if you experience disturbed sleep for more than a month without an apparent cause. Also if you never seem to get enough sleep or fall asleep suddenly during the day. 

If you have sleep medication that is no longer working, or you have been taking medication for more than a few nights with no discernible success you should also seek out a medical professional.

Stress like a job loss or change of role can cause primary insomnia.

How is insomnia diagnosed?

Once symptoms have been reported as above, which could indicate a sleep disorder, sleep disorder specialists can use sleep disorder tests to investigate the problem. A doctor would perform a physical exam, then take a medical and sleep history. During the exam the doctor would be looking for any medical or psychological ailment that may be contributing to the lack of sleep. For example, they may ask about chronic snoring, or sleep apnea. You may be asked whether you are suffering from anxiety, depression or any other potential cause for your sleeplessness.

Tests used to diagnose insomnia can include:

• sleep diary – tracking sleep patterns over a period of time

• Epworth sleepiness scale – a validated questionnaire that is used to assess daytime sleepiness

• polysomnogram – a test which measures activity during sleep

• actigraphy – a small, watch-sized instrument worn on the wrist to assess sleep/wake patterns over time

• mental health exam – since insomnia can be directly connected with depression, anxiety or another mental health disorder.

What are the causes of insomnia?

Causes of primary insomnia include:

• stress related to big life events, like a job loss or change of role

• the death of a loved one

• divorce or moving house

• things around you like noise, light, or temperature changes

• changes to your sleep schedule like jet lag, a new shift at work, or bad habits you picked up when you had other sleep problems.

Causes of secondary insomnia include:

• mental health issues like depression and anxiety

• medications for colds, allergies, depression, high blood pressure or asthma

• pain or discomfort at night

• caffeine, tobacco or alcohol

• hyperthyroidism and other endocrine problems

• other sleep disorders, like sleep apnea or restless legs syndrome.

Secondary insomnia can be caused by mental health issues.

How is insomnia treated?

It is possible your doctor will refer you to a sleep disorder specialist. Sleep patterns can be monitored either at home or in a controlled environment and anomalies can point to an underlying sleep disorder.

Behavioral therapy is another approach your doctor may pursue. This would be conducted by a psychologist, psychiatrist or other medical professional with specialized training. Several visits would usually be required to learn and implement the techniques of specific behavioral therapies. Some of the more common behavioral approaches include:

• stimulus control, which trains people to use their bed and bedroom for sleep and sexual activity only. Persons with insomnia are encouraged to go to another room and engage in a relaxing activity, such as reading a book or meditating, until they are sleepy and ready to return to bed.

• cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), which is conducted with a therapist who helps the patient examine and process attitudes and beliefs that may contribute to poor sleep

• relaxation training, which often involves reducing tension and muscular relaxation techniques

• hypnotherapy, which can transform a person into a deep state of relaxation, and also teach self-hypnosis techniques to self-relax

• over-the-counter (OTC) or prescription sleep aids may also help with insomnia. Medications differ by dose and duration of action. Most individuals take sleep aids for a few nights or a few weeks at a time. OTC sleep aids are available at your local pharmacy. 

Bed and bedroom should be used for sleep and sex only.

Frequently asked questions (FAQs) about insomnia:

1. What is the main cause of insomnia?

There are several potential causes of insomnia. These include stress, concerns about school, work, health, finances or family. These things can keep your mind active at night which makes it difficult to sleep. Stressful life events or trauma, including the death or illness of a loved one, divorce, or job loss, can also lead to the development of insomnia. Underlying health issues or mental disturbance can also be triggers.

2. How can I stop my insomnia?

Tips for improving insomnia include the following:

• wake up at the same time each day

• eliminate alcohol and stimulants such as nicotine and caffeine

• limit naps during the daytime

• exercise regularly

• limit stimulating activities in bed such as the use of electronic devices

• limit eating or drinking right before bedtime

• make your sleep environment as comfortable and relaxing as possible.

3. How do I know if I have insomnia?

You may have insomnia if you experience any of the following symptoms: 

• difficulty falling asleep

• difficulty staying asleep

• waking up during the night and having trouble returning to sleep

• waking up too early in the morning

• waking up feeling unrested or unrefreshed (non-restorative sleep)

• fatigue or low energy

• cognitive impairment, such as difficulty concentrating.

4. Can you die from insomnia?

In an extremely rare number of cases, chronic insomnia has been a direct cause of death. People who have the genetic disease called fatal familial insomnia (FFI) develop symptoms of exhaustion, dementia and coma and will eventually die. 

5. What foods cause insomnia?

Food and drink that can cause insomnia and anxiety include the following:

• caffeine

• alcohol

• nightshades (potatoes, tomatoes, eggplant, peppers and gogi berries)

• aged, fermented, smoked, cured or cultured foods such as salami, cheese, sauerkraut or red wine

• sugar, flour and other refined carbohydrates.

6. Is insomnia a sign of cancer?

Insomnia itself is not a sign of cancer. The risk of insomnia increases with age and with serious illnesses such as cancer. Insomnia can also worsen other cancer-related conditions such as pain, fatigue, depression or anxiety. 

7. What helps you sleep with insomnia?

Melatonin, which is a natural chemical produced by the body, can be taken as supplements to help with symptoms of insomnia. If you are a night owl which a natural tendency to go to bed later and wake up later than others, melatonin may be an effective treatment for insomnia. Valerian may also be an effective treatment for insomnia. Valerian is a herb with mild sedative effects and thus may help you fall asleep and stay asleep better.  

8. Is insomnia a mental illness?

Insomnia is not a mental illness itself, however it is a common symptom of many mental disorders such as anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). 

9. What will happen if insomnia is not treated?

If insomnia is left untreated, it can increase the risk for developing anxiety, depression, and heart failure. Insomnia that is not treated will also perpetuate the daytime symptoms of fatigue, trouble concentrating and mood disturbances. 

10. Is insomnia a sign of a brain tumor?

Insomnia itself is not a sign of a brain tumor, however sleep-wake disturbances often occur in patients with brain tumors. 

11. Can insomnia be a sign of something serious?

Insomnia in itself, with no other indications or diagnoses, is unlikely to be a sign of a more serious condition. Conversely, serious conditions can be a cause of insomnia. Examples of medical conditions that can be accompanied by insomnia are:

• nasal/ sinus allergies

• gastrointestinal problems such as reflux

• endocrine problems such as hyperthyroidism

• arthritis

• asthma

• neurological conditions such as Parkinson’s disease

• chronic pain

• low back pain.

12. How do I get checked for insomnia?

There is no definitive test for insomnia. Doctors use many different tools to examine, measure and diagnose insomnia which will involve a lot of questions, filling in diaries and questionnaires, examining sleep patterns over a period of time, blood tests and possibly an overnight sleep study.

Want to learn more about how to tackle insomnia? Try these books!

End the Insomnia Struggle: A Step-by-Step Guide to Help You Get to Sleep and Stay Asleep

Everyone struggles with sleep from time to time, but when sleepless nights and overtired days become the norm, your well-being is compromised, and frustration and worry increase—including concerns about what’s stopping you from getting the sleep you need, and what can be done about it. End the Insomnia Struggle offers a comprehensive, medication-free program that can be individually tailored for anyone who struggles with insomnia.

The 4-Week Insomnia Workbook: A Drug-Free Program to Build Healthy Habits and Achieve Restful Sleep

Counting sheep, doing a headstand or wearing socks won’t get you to sleep. Good news—addressing the root causes of your insomnia can. This book will get you from stressed to sleep in just four weeks with a range of proven drug-free strategies. With The 4-Week Insomnia Workbook as your guide, you’ll learn the latest CBT-I (Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia) and mindfulness practices to get to the bottom of your sleepless nights. Throughout this program, you’ll tackle the thoughts and feelings that keep you up at night and establish a sleep-hygiene routine that works for you.

The Book of Sleep: 75 Strategies to Relieve Insomnia

Make your bed and actually sleep in it. The Book of Sleep provides dozens of quick, easy, and evidence-based strategies that are more effective and sustainable than sleep medication for people who suffer from insomnia.

Based in CBT-I (cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia), the techniques in this book were developed by a clinical psychologist who specializes in insomnia treatment. Find the relief you need and wake up feeling truly restored. A good night’s sleep isn’t just a dream anymore.


Insomnia is Treatable Sleep – January 2020

Insomnia – January 2018

Diagnosing Insomnia – WebMD – October 2018

Narcissistic Personality Disorder (11 point guide)

In this guide, the Narcissistic Personality Disorder personality will be explained along with the signs of Narcissistic Personality Disorder and the diagnostic criteria of Narcissistic Personality Disorder given in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder 5.

What is Narcissistic Personality Disorder?

Narcissistic Personality Disorder is not similar to a self-absorbed person.  In layman language, the Narcissistic Personality Disorder term usually used when the person is complimenting themselves excessively in the conversations, as well as sharing their qualities and traits with a boost of self-esteem are seen as Narcissistic Personality Disorder.

In formal terms, the Narcissistic Personality Disorder has a personality disorder named as Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD). This is a mental condition and it requires few particular symptoms to be diagnosed in Narcissistic Personality Disorder. Those important symptoms of Narcissistic Personality Disorder will be discussed in the following guide, before going to Narcissistic Personality Disorder we need to know what personality disorders are, and how we categorize any pattern into a personality disorder.

Characteristics of Narcissistic Personality Disorder

There are a few characteristics of Narcissistic Personality Disorder which are:

  1. They may seem charming at first because of the overly exaggerated self-image they cast on others. They may complement the other only to seek attention towards their own capabilities and abilities.
  2. They keep on going with their endless stories of achievements and grandiosity keeps on flourishing. They feel batter and smarter than anyone else around and seems self-assured.
  3. They strive hard to win the compliments of others and show empathy which is not actually present to supply their sense of self-worth in you. They use others to increase their own self-esteem and sense of self.
  4. They severely lack empathy and can dramatize the empathy to validate their emotional sensitivity. This is the reason for the lack of established relations in Narcissistic Personality Disorder.
  5. They lack real friends and always complaining about others not to giving them enough time.
  6. They may pass criticising and teasing comments and maybe in problem with your likes and dislikes. They will joke about you, and try to shatter your self-esteem, as this gives their self-esteem a boost.
  7. They consider their action to be right always, and consider others are at wrong, because of their this behaviour they never apologize or accept the mistakes they make. Fighting with a Narcissistic Personality Disorder and winning the fight is almost impossible, as they never hear you, they never understand you, they never take the responsibility of their actions, they never try to compromise.
  8. They get stressed whenever anyone close to them, or in relation with them tries to break-up as they are unable to handle a lack of appreciation from their environment. They can easily get disturbed on the slightest criticism.
  9. Once you are done with them, they will make every effort to hurt you, and make sure that you are not satisfied in your own life as well. In this way, their rage and hatred gets settled.

What are Personality Disorders?

Person with a personality disorder thinks, feels, and behaves differently. There are several different types of personality disorders clustered into different categories on the basis of their characteristics.

Personality disorder is a persistent pattern of behaving and feeling, which is altered. Initially in DSM IV, personality disorder used to be diagnosed on Axis-II, but in DSM 5 (2013), the axial system has been changed and now single diagnosis with co-occurring symptoms use to be given.

Symptoms of Personality Disorder

There are a number of different personality disorders, such as the cluster A is categorized as suspicious, delusional, not interested in social interactions or not having social skills to maintain the social relationships, as well as inability to consider the consequences of their actions and lead towards illegal, and risky behaviour.

Similarly, Cluster B is categorized on the basis of dramatic symptoms. The person experiencing cluster B personality condition will report feelings of emptiness, self-harm incidents or multiple failed suicide attempts, overly impressionistic, having fragile self-esteem, and excessively praising oneself in situations.

Whereas, Cluster C, is categorized on the basis of anxious symptoms. They are sometimes overly clingy to other person, are overly concerned with order, or tries to avoid social situations because of fear of criticism.

Types of Personality Disorder

The personality disorders are clustered into three:

Cluster A: Odd, Eccentric

In this cluster there are three disorders named:

1.     Paranoid Personality Disorder

2.     Schizoid Personality Disorder

3.     Schizotypal Personality Disorder

Cluster B: Dramatic, or Unpredictable

1.     Antisocial Personality Disorder

2.     Borderline Personality Disorder

3.     Histrionic Personality Disorder

4.     Narcissistic Personality Disorder

Cluster C: Anxious, or Fearful

1.     Avoidant Personality Disorder

2.     Dependent Personality Disorder

3.     Obsessive Personality Disorder

Narcissistic Personality Disorder

They consider themselves to be superior than others. They consider as they are special and more deserving than the others. They have fragile self-esteem, as well as depend on others to acknowledge their importance and value. They are selfish and think about themselves, tries to take benefit from others, and feels sad about the achievements of others.

Diagnostic Criteria of Narcissistic Personality Disorder

There is an enduring pattern of grandiosity, self-appraisal, and lack of empathy, along with onset in early adulthood. Five or more the following needs to present for the diagnosis of Narcissistic Personality Disorder.

  1. Increased sense of self-importance, and exaggeration of self accomplishments.
  2. Having unending fantasies about their own success, power and idealism.
  3. Consider themselves unique, special and of high-status
  4. Need bundle of admiration
  5. Needs a sense of entitlement
  6. Exploitative in relationships
  7. Unable to take into account the feelings of others
  8. Jealous of others and consider others are jealous of them
  9. Extremely arrogant and rude

Causes of Narcissistic Personality Disorder

There are a number of causes of personality disorder, but there is no one clear cause of personality disorder. The factors contribute to personality disorders are biological, psychological, physical and socio-cultural.

The biological causes include the genes, heredity, family history, functioning of neurotransmitters and chemical substances.

The psychological causes of personality disorders are childhood trauma, stress, adverse family environment, low self-esteem, child neglect and parental rejection.

Physical causes include brain dysfunction and psychiatric pathology.

The sociocultural causes include divorce, being deserted, deprivation of relationships, assault, abuse death and separation.

Risk Factors in Narcissistic Personality Disorder 

The with Narcissistic Personality Disorder personality traits is more prevalent in male than females, as well as Narcissistic Personality Disorder has its onset in teenage or early adulthood.

Children show Narcissistic Personality Disorder traits is related to their age, not the Narcissistic Personality Disorder personality trait.

The real cause of Narcissistic Personality Disorder is not known, the overprotective and neglectful parental styles often leads towards the Narcissistic Personality Disorder personality traits and disorders.

Complications for Narcissistic Personality Disorder

The complications and other conditions which can cooccur with the Narcissistic Personality Disorder are:

Relationship disturbances prevail in Narcissistic Personality Disorder, which can escalate easily by the constant acknowledgement of one’s own capabilities and capacities, while criticizing, ignoring and inability to compliment others around.

Problems at work or school, the problems escalate in the outside activities, especially when they come across the job or position they consider themselves as special and superior to others around which cause a lot of negativity at their workplace.

Depression and anxiety also take a boost when the person is unable to get themselves adjusted in the environment. This feeling of misfit causes anxiety about the future and depression about the past events.

Physical Health problems are related to the mental health and wellbeing when the person is unable to cope well with his environment then they are unable to settle in the life and starts experiencing stress which causes health issues like blood pressure, cardiovascular diseases etc.

Drug or Alcohol misuse also escalates when the person is striving to be unique, special and superior. In their constant efforts either they take up this habit for the distinction they need or to cope with the environmental pressures.

Suicidal thoughts or behaviour is present in Narcissistic Personality Disorder as their high standards are not being met in their environment and causes them to feel remorse and failure.

Treatment of Narcissistic Personality Disorder 

There are different forms of treatment for Narcissistic Personality Disorder.

1.  Psychotherapy

2.      Medication


It is one form of treatment, in this a mental health professional especially a psychologist deal with the client experiencing the personality disorder symptoms. This is also called ‘talk-therapy’, this usually takes up to three months and sometimes more. There are different therapies which can be used for personality disorder.

Dialectic Behaviour Therapy

This is the evidence-based therapy for personality disorders, especially for the treatment of borderline disorder. In this treatment approach, the skills to manage one’s emotions, as well as mindfulness is discussed in detail.

Arts Therapy

This type of therapy is useful to uncover the unconscious pattern and understand the person’s emotions, and feelings in a non-threatening environment. It includes the use of dance, art, drama and music.

Cognitive Behaviour Therapy

In CBT, the clinician looks for the discrepancy in the thoughts, emotions and behaviour of the person along with the automatic thought patterns.

Schema Therapy

It is a long term talking therapy, which is based on the model of CBT, and goes further deep into the core beliefs and schemas of the person, which influence their thoughts, behaviours and actions.


There are no specific drugs made for personality disorders, but the combination of drugs for the symptoms of depression, anxiety, and psychosis are used for particular symptoms.

Frequently Asked Questions for Narcissistic Personality Disorder

What are the traits of a narcissist?

The main common traits of a Narcissist can be explained in terms of Narcissistic Personality Disorder, such as grandiosity, fantasy living, constant praise and acknowledgement, sense of entitlement, have feelings of guilt and shame, and bulling others.

What are the 9 traits of a narcissist?

The 9 traits of a Narcissist are, exaggerated sense of self-importance, sense of entitlement, excessive admiration, consider themselves superior, exaggerate achievements and talents, preoccupied with the fantasies of success, power and brilliance.

How do I deal with a narcissist?

To deal with a narcissist, you just have to avoid confrontations, and if they have power over you, fight may make it worse. You have to get in the flow with them as opposing them make them against you.

Do narcissists love their children?

Narcissists are unable to empathize and develop feelings of empathy and love, so it is unfortunate for them to love someone else other than themselves. Narcissistic Personality Disorder only see their children as possession which can be used in future to their advantage.



Recommended Readings

Becoming the Narcissistic Personality Disorder’s Nightmare: How to Devalue and Discard the Narcissistic Personality Disorder While Supplying Yourself

How to Handle a Narcissistic Personality Disorder: Understanding and Dealing with a Range of Narcissistic Personality Disorderic Personalities (Narcissism Books)

 The Narcissistic Personality Disorder You Know: Defending Yourself Against Extreme Narcissistic Personality Disorders in an All-About-Me Age

HOW TO TAKE REVENGE ON A Narcissistic Personality Disorder: Take your power back by using the secret techniques of emotional manipulators – against them

Narcissistic Personality Disorder: The Ultimate Guide: This Book Includes: Narcissistic Personality Disorderic Abuse & Dealing with a Narcissistic Personality Disorder. Healing after emotional/psychological abuse. Disarming the Narcissistic Personality Disorder and understanding Narcissism

What is narcolepsy? (A complete guide)

Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder that is characterized by excessive, uncontrollable daytime sleepiness. 

What is narcolepsy?

Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable daytime drowsiness and sudden sleep attacks. People with narcolepsy can experience sudden loss of muscle tone, which is known as cataplexy. Cataplexy can sometimes be triggered by strong emotions. 

Unfortunately, there is no cure to date for narcolepsy, but medications are available to help and lifestyle changes can help manage the symptoms. 

Excessive daytime sleepiness is a sign of narcolepsy.

What are the signs and symptoms of narcolepsy? 

There are several symptoms of narcolepsy which might worsen for the first few years after diagnosis, but then plateau for the rest of the person’s life. 

These symptoms include the following:

·      excessive daytime sleepiness

·      sudden loss of muscle tone

·      sleep paralysis

·      changes in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep

·      hallucinations.

How is narcolepsy diagnosed?

A doctor may make a preliminary diagnosis of narcolepsy based on excessive daytime sleepiness and sudden loss of muscle tone (cataplexy). After an initial diagnosis, a doctor will probably refer a patient to a sleep specialist for further evaluation.

Formal diagnosis requires staying overnight at a sleep center for an in-depth sleep analysis by sleep specialists. Methods of diagnosing narcolepsy and determining its severity include:

·       Sleep history. The doctor will ask for a detailed sleep history. A part of the history involves filling out the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, which uses a series of short questions to gauge the degree of sleepiness. For instance, a patient indicates on a numbered scale how likely it is that they would doze off in certain situations, such as sitting down after lunch.

·       Sleep records. The patient may be asked to keep a detailed diary of their sleep pattern for a week or two, so the doctor can compare how the sleep pattern and alertness are related. Often, in addition to this sleep log, the doctor will ask the patient to wear an actigraph. This device has the look and feel of a wristwatch. It measures periods of activity and rest and provides an indirect measure of how and when sleep happens.

·       Polysomnography. This test measures a variety of signals during sleep using electrodes placed on a patient’s scalp. For this test, the patient must spend a night at a medical facility. The test measures the electrical activity of the brain (electroencephalogram) and heart (electrocardiogram) and the movement of the muscles (electromyogram) and eyes (electro-oculogram). It also monitors breathing.

·       Multiple sleep latency test. This examination measures how long it takes the patient to fall asleep during the day. The patient will be asked to take four or five naps, each nap two hours apart. Specialists will observe the resultant sleep patterns. People who have narcolepsy fall asleep easily and enter into rapid eye movement (REM) sleep quickly.

What are the causes of narcolepsy? 

Many cases of narcolepsy are thought to be caused by a lack of a brain chemical called hypocretin (also known as orexin), which regulates sleep. The deficiency is thought to be the result of the immune system mistakenly attacking parts of the brain that produce hypocretin.

A doctor will probably refer a patient to a sleep specialist for further evaluation.

What are the treatments for narcolepsy? 

Narcolepsy cannot be ‘cured’ as such, but medications can help with symptoms, these include:

·       Stimulants. Drugs that stimulate the central nervous system are the primary treatment to help people with narcolepsy stay awake during the day. Doctors often try modafinil (Provigil) or armodafinil (Nuvigil) first. Modafinil and armodafinil aren’t as addictive as older stimulants and don’t produce the highs and lows often associated with older stimulants. Side effects are uncommon, but may include headache, nausea or anxiety.

Some people need treatment with methylphenidate (Aptensio XR, Concerta, Ritalin, others) or various amphetamines. These medications are very effective but can be addictive. They may cause side effects such as nervousness and heart palpitations.

·       Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). Doctors often prescribe these medications, which suppress REM sleep, to help alleviate the symptoms of cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations and sleep paralysis. They include fluoxetine (Prozac, Sarafem, Selfemra) and venlafaxine (Effexor XR). Side effects can include weight gain, insomnia and digestive problems.

·       Tricyclic antidepressants. These older antidepressants, such as protriptyline (Vivactil), imipramine (Tofranil) and clomipramine (Anafranil), are effective for cataplexy, but many people complain of side effects, such as dry mouth and lightheadedness.

·       Sodium oxybate (Xyrem). This medication is highly effective for cataplexy. Sodium oxybate helps to improve nighttime sleep, which is often poor in narcolepsy. In high doses it may also help control daytime sleepiness. It must be taken in two doses, one at bedtime and one up to four hours later.

Xyrem can have side effects, such as nausea, bed-wetting and worsening of sleepwalking. Taking sodium oxybate together with other sleeping medications, narcotic pain relievers or alcohol can lead to difficulty breathing, coma and death.

Is there treatment for narcolepsy alongside medication?

Narcolepsy is usually treated with behavioral strategies plus carefully chosen medications. Behavioral strategies include taking daytime naps and staying active. These lifestyle changes can include good sleep habits, napping, knowing how to stay alert, and developing self-awareness.

Maintain good sleep habits. Keep a regular bedtime, make your room cool and dark (use darkening shades or curtains, remove any electronic devices from your room, and use ear plugs if necessary), and avoid heavy meals or alcohol before bed. If you can’t sleep in the middle of the night, leave your bed to read a book or do another non-stimulating activity until you feel drowsy again. Do not look at your cell phone, computer or other electronic screen during the night.

Take smart naps. Strategic naps can help people with narcolepsy feel refreshed and productive. The best naps are 15-20 minutes and spaced throughout the day, without happening too close to bedtime. The point in the day when people often feel most sleepy is 2:00 – 3:00 p.m. If it’s appropriate, find a place to nap at work and explain your condition to your co-workers. Napping can increase your work productivity.

Get to know your triggers, and stay active.

Stay active. Sitting for long periods of time can increase sleepiness. Stand up and take walks, go outside, sit near a window or in the back of class so you can stand up periodically. If you can use an adjustable standing desk, or a yoga ball to sit on, this may help you stay alert.

Get to know your triggers. What are the factors that cause you to be most drowsy? Consider time of day, activities, temperature, and light. Are you more likely to experience cataplexy when you’re very tired or during a strong emotion? It helps to know your triggers and manage them so you feel more in control.

Seek counseling. You don’t have to do this alone. Counseling is an important aspect of narcolepsy treatment. Talk to an individual therapist and/or join a support group (whether online or in person). Anxiety, isolation, or self-esteem issues can arise because of narcolepsy symptoms and talking about this with others helps you learn, take control, and not feel alone.

Frequently asked questions (FAQs) about narcolepsy: 

1.    What triggers narcolepsy?

Narcolepsy is thought to be caused by deficiencies in hypocretin, which is a chemical naturally produced in the brain. Hypocretin regulates sleep and wakefulness. It has been hypothesized that the immune system mistakenly attacks the areas of the brain that produce hypocretin. 

2.    Can you die from narcolepsy?

Narcolepsy is not a fatal disease by itself, however, the sudden sleep attacks and sudden loss of muscle tone or cataplexy can lead to car accidents, injuries, or other life-threatening situations.

3.    Can I drive if I have narcolepsy?

This depends from locale to locale. When sleepiness is under good control, many people with narcolepsy are safe to drive. However, they must know their limits. Some individuals may be safe driving around town for 30 minutes but not on a four-hour, boring highway drive.

Many people with narcolepsy can drive, but must know their limits.

4.    What are the five signs of narcolepsy?

·      an uncontrollable urge to sleep, often at inappropriate times

·      weak muscles e.g. knee buckle or eye droop with strong emotions like laughing

·      poor quality sleep at night

·      feeling unable to speak or move when falling asleep or waking up

·      vivid, often scary, dreamlike experiences when falling asleep or waking up.

5.    Do narcoleptics know when they fall asleep?

People with narcolepsy fall asleep without warning, anywhere, anytime. For example, you may be working or talking with friends and suddenly you nod off, sleeping for a few minutes up to a half-hour. When you awaken, you feel refreshed, but eventually you get sleepy again.

6.    Can narcoleptics fight sleep?

It’s actually a chronic brain disorder. People with narcolepsy have poorly regulated sleep-wake cycles, so they experience sudden and involuntary attacks of daytime sleepiness—whether for a few seconds or minutes—and often aren’t able to resist the urge to sleep.

7.    How do doctors test for narcolepsy?

A narcolepsy diagnosis requires several tests. A doctor will perform a physical exam and an in-depth medical history to rule out other causes of symptoms. … Two tests that are considered essential in confirming a diagnosis of narcolepsy are the polysomnogram (PSG) and the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT).

8.    Does coffee help with narcolepsy?

Some people with narcolepsy find coffee or other caffeinated beverages helpful to staying awake. For others, coffee is ineffective, or, in combination with stimulant medications, it can cause jitteriness, diarrhea, anxiety, or a racing heart.

9.     What is Type 2 narcolepsy? 

Type 2 narcolepsy (previously termed narcolepsy without cataplexy). People with this condition experience excessive daytime sleepiness but usually do not have muscle weakness triggered by emotions. They usually also have less severe symptoms and have normal levels of the brain hormone hypocretin.

10.                  Is narcolepsy genetic?

Although there are rare families where narcolepsy is passed on through several generations, most cases of narcolepsy occur at random rather than being inherited. The likelihood of developing narcolepsy is influenced by proteins known as histocompatibility leukocyte antigens (HLA).

For further reading on narcolepsy try these books:

Wide Awake and Dreaming: A Memoir of Narcolepsy

Julie Flygare was on an ambitious path to success, entering law school at age 22, when narcolepsy destroyed the neurological boundaries between dreaming and reality in her brain. She faced terrifying hallucinations, paralysis, and excruciating sleepiness, aspects of dream sleep taking place while wide awake. 

Yet, narcolepsy was a wake-up call for Julie. Her illness propelled her onto a journey she never imagined, from lying paralyzed on her apartment floor to dancing euphorically at a nightclub; from the classrooms of Harvard Medical School to the start line of the Boston Marathon. 

Winner of the San Francisco Book Festival Award for Biography/Autobiography, Wide Awake and Dreaming is a revealing first-hand account of dreams gone wrong with narcolepsy.

Sleepyhead: Narcolepsy, Neuroscience and the Search for a Good Night

When Henry Nicholls was twenty-one, he was diagnosed with narcolepsy: a medical disorder causing him to fall asleep with no warning. For the healthy but overworked majority, this might sound like an enviable condition, but for Henry, the inability to stay awake is profoundly disabling, especially as it is accompanied by mysterious collapses called cataplexy, poor night-time sleep, hallucinations and sleep paralysis. A writer and biologist, Nicholls explores the science of disordered sleep, discovering that around half of us will experience some kind of sleep dysfunction in our lives. From a CBT course to tackle insomnia to a colony of narcoleptic Dobermans, his journey takes him through the half-lit world of sleep to genuine revelations about his own life and health.

Narcolepsy: A Funny Disorder That’s No Laughing Matter

This book provides accurate facts about all aspects of narcolepsy, a little-known neurological sleep disorder. It is estimated that 150,000-250,000 people in the U.S. have narcolepsy, but most of those have not yet been diagnosed. In the past, patients have seen an average of five or more physicians over a decade or longer before receiving a correct diagnosis of narcolepsy.

40 Winks: A Narcoleptic’s Journey Through Sleep, Dreams & Spirituality

40 Winks takes readers on a journey into the mind of a narcoleptic. The reader not only sees the hardships of daily life, but also experiences the fears and thrills of nightmares, lucid dreaming, sleep paralysis and after death communication. With her many experiences in the REM/wake mixed state of consciousness and with an education in Polysomnography, the author provides evidence to bridge the gap between medical advances in sleep and neurology and spiritual teachings of the afterlife. We all have a connection to those in the spirit world, and through REM, we open a direct line of communication. 40 Winks offers affirmation to those who may be questioning their own dream experiences as coincidence or being “just a dream.”



Narcolepsy – Overview – NHS UK – May 2019

Narcolepsy – Mayo Clinic – January 2020

Narcolepsy – WebMD – December 2019

What is orthorexia Nervosa?

Orthorexia, also known as orthorexia nervosa, is a harmful obsession with healthy eating. Those with orthorexia are often preoccupied with the cleanliness and purity of the food in their diet. This term, coined by American physician Steven Bratman in 1996, means fixation on healthful consumption. Individuals with orthorexia often find themselves scrutinizing every element in their diet, severely limiting the kinds of food that they eat. This focus to eat “a perfectly healthy” diet can take a serious toll on the bodily and mental health of the person.

This is a kind of diet that aims to limit eating of processed foods and those that have high quantities of sugar, unhealthy body fat, and other preservatives. It also includes selecting entire foods in their most natural state. For example, sticking to a vegan, dairy-free, raw nutrition, gluten-free, etc. could all fall under efforts to eat healthfully. Though, orthorexia can grow out of any specific method consumption and can develop from a genuine place of wanting to be healthier.

What are the signs and symptoms of orthorexia nervosa?

Symptoms of this disease can be visible because it can make changes in the human body that can be easily identified. Like other eating disorders, many signs surround the individual’s concept and actions regarding food intake. Also similarly, there are emotional symptoms that might be difficult to see, but the individual certainly feels. Some examples of symptoms are as follows:

Ø  Fixation over the quality of food

This is really at the root of orthorexia. Individuals living with orthorexia are very attentive and compulsive over the type of their food they eat. People with this disorder often limit their nourishment to those that they deem “healthy”. The quantity of nourishment is characteristically less significant than that quality. Individuals might also compulsively follow food and healthy lifestyle blogs and social media accounts.

Ø  Uncompromising eating patterns

Somebody with orthorexia is often very rigid with their food intake. Whatever measured by the individual to be unhealthy or bad for the body will be avoided. They typically check all food labels and ingredient lists extensively, as well as develop an unusual interest in what other people eat. They might even become extremely critical about what their friends and family are eating, without having rationale for their opinions regarding what is or is not healthy. The research that they might find themselves diving about what food has what ingredients, etc. becomes all-consuming and an obsession.

Ø  Cutting out entire food groups

This surely expresses you how unbending these orthorexia-fuelled rule-based foods can become. Removal of entire food groups is a common incidence for this population of people. For example, some groups of food could be processed foods, sugar, meat, carbohydrates, gluten and dairy products.

Ø  Anxiety  

There could be increased anxiety surrounding what food options might be available at an event. An individual with orthorexia would find themselves obsessed with thinking about their future food intake and become anxious and/or distressed if food they eat is not available to them. As a part of this, there could also be a fear of losing control. In other words, someone might feel that eating one piece of food that is not the quality they deem healthy could be disastrous.

Ø  Physical weakness

Those with orthorexia would likely find themselves feeling weak, tired, low energy, and/or cold consistently. The changes in diet and depending on what the individual continues eating can severely impact the body’s ability to maintain day to day activities. In fact, it can also impact the body’s ability to fight off sickness and these individuals might find themselves taking a long time to recover from illness.

Ø  Loss of weight

Though weight is not essentially a clinical indicator of orthorexia, some cases do include weight loss. An orthorexia diet is an unstable diet that often results in undernourishment. While someone with orthorexia may sense as though removing certain foods will bring positive body goals, they are frequently doing quite the opposite by depleting their own nourishment in decreasing food variety. Intentional weight loss and body image concerns may play a role in orthorexia, but not necessarily.


There is no treatment created specifically for orthorexia, but it is typically treated as other eating disorders and obsessive compulsive disorders are. Commonly, it is treated with psychotherapy and/or medication. Following are the most effective treatments of orthorexia given:

  1. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT)

The goal of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy is to focus on changing actions rather than thoughts and emotions. ACT also encourages clients to distance themselves from their feelings and learn that pain and anxiety are a normal part of life. The goal is not to feel good, but to live an authentic life.

  1. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)

A kind of psychotherapy known as cognitive behavioral therapy is particularly valuable for treating Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and eating disorders because it aims to modify distorted beliefs and attitudes. In regards to eating disorders, it can target the meaning of food intake, weight, and appearance, all of which are correlated to the progression of the eating disorder.

  1. Cognitive Remediation Therapy (CRT)

Cognitive Remediation Therapy aims to develop an individual’s ability to focus on more than one thing. For example, when working with a client with orthorexia, encouraging the client to think beyond the integrity of the food. CRT targets rigid thinking processes, which is considered a core component of many eating disorders through simple exercises, reflection, and guided supervision. 

  1. Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT)

Dialectical Behavioral Therapy is used often in treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Dialectical Behavioral Therapy combines behavioral, reasoning, and contemplative skills to support an individual in their healing process. The skills also have an emphasis on mindfulness, interpersonal relationships, emotion regulation, and distress tolerance.

  1. Family-Based Treatment (FBT)

Also known as the Maudsley Method or Maudsley Approach, Family-Based Treatment is a home-based treatment approach that has been shown to be effective for adolescents, specifically, with eating disorders. FBT doesn’t focus on the cause of the eating disorder, but instead focuses on refeeding and full weight restoration to promote recovery from the beginning. All family members are considered an essential part of the treatment, which consists of re-establishing healthy eating, restoring weight, and interrupting compensatory behaviors, thus returning control of eating back to the adolescent.

  1. Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT)

Interpersonal psychotherapy is an evidence-based treatment for eating disorders as it contextualizes eating disorder symptoms as occurring and being maintained within a social and interpersonal context. IPT is associated with specific tasks and strategies linked to the resolution of a specified problem area. IPT can help clients improve relationships and communication, as well as resolve interpersonal issues in the identified problem area(s). With all of those areas addressed, there is typically a reduction of eating disorder symptoms

  1. Medication

Doctors also may recommend medicines to treat orthorexia. The most generally given medications for orthorexia are antianxiety and antidepressant medications. If given medication, psychotherapy is still strongly suggested.

  1. Developing a healthier relationship with food

With so much information on diet and food out there, it can be tough to differentiate the good from the bad. Normally, we all want a balance of protein, carbohydrates, fiber, fats, vitamins, and natural resources to give us the best energy and fitness. In aiming for the ideal, look to comprise some of each food group in every meal. Swapping processed foods with fresh constitutes when possible is a decent place to start. Likewise, homebased cooking rather than take-out is also helpful in keeping a well balanced diet. Emphasis should always be caring for yourself.

Following table helps us to understand the differences between healthy eating and orthorexia.

Healthy EatingOrthorexia
1.     You do your finest to make nutritious diet selections most of the time, but make exceptions when you want to.1.     You stick strictly to your food and may waste food or become nervous if you do not have access to the food that meets your stipulations.
2.     You cut out certain foods for health reasons or when you physically feel healthier when you avoid them.2.     You cut out some nourishments or even entire food groups because you view them as impure or not good for your health.
3.     Your uniqueness is founded on numerous interests, groups, work, and hobbies.3.     Your identity is based mainly on the cleanliness and excellence of your diet.

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. What does orthorexia do to your body?

Orthorexia can cause one’s body to develop malnutrition and medical complications. Similar to other eating disorders, some possible conditions are heart disease, problems with cognition, lowered immune system, nutritional deficiencies, osteoporosis, kidney failure, and infertility.

  1. How does orthorexia start?

It can often begin as a desire to eat healthier to improve health. Orthorexia is manifested when the desire to eat healthy becomes an obsession. 

  1. Can orthorexia kill you?

Orthorexia can lead to malnutrition if the individual cuts out entire food groups. Malnutrition can lead to many other complications and can be fatal.

  1. Are vegans orthorexic?

Vegans are not orthorexic, though individuals who follow vegan diets could become orthorexic. Orthorexia is an extreme obsession with healthy eating, whereas veganism is a specific set of guidelines for one’s diet.

  1. How prevalent is orthorexia nervosa?

There is limited research on orthorexia nervosa, but the few studies that have been conducted suggest that 1%-7% of the general population. Like other eating disorders, research suggests that more women than men are affected by orthorexia. 

For more information, check out these recommended readings:

Orthorexia: When Healthy Eating Goes Bad

This book compassionately and expertly explains to the reader how to recognise potential issues, break free from the condition, and discover how to get back to a balanced, truly healthy way of eating and overall enjoying life again.

Health Food Junkies: Orthorexia Nervosa – the Health Food Eating Disorder

Health Food Junkies is the first book to identify orthorexia nervosa. Being a newly identified eating disorder, orthorexia nervosa there is not much information on the disorder in the world. This book offers detailed, practical advice on how to cope with and overcome it. 

Beating Orthorexia and the Memoirs of Health Freak: Take Back the control of your life which your obsession with health took away 

In Beating Orthorexia, the author shares his experiences and thoughts about what it means to be Orthorexic, how it can impact your life, and practical suggestions about how to alter your fundamental views about health and food around in order to overcome this condition in an incredibly honest and open way. 


Help and Treatment, Beat Eating Disorders

Orthorexia, National Eating Disorder AssociationOrthorexia Nervosa: Signs and Treatment, WebMD

Paranoid personality disorder (A complete guide)

This guide will help to identify the symptoms of paranoid personality disorder, its causes, and also highlight its treatments, to give a piece of comprehensive knowledge about paranoid personality disorder. 

What is paranoid personality disorder?

Paranoid personality disorder (PPD) is an eccentric, personality-related psychological disorder, in which there is a strange perspective of thinking is involved. The patients suffer from paranoia, mistrust, and extreme suspicion of people and events, even in situations where there seem to be no reasons to be suspicious or distrusting.

This psychological disorder usually develops in early adulthood, and more males suffer from this disorder, as compared to females. People suffering from this disorder appear to be odd or peculiar in a way that they often stand out as uncommon and weird to other people. Studies in pathophysiology have been able to gather data that suggests that paranoid personality disorder affects between 2.3% and 4.4% of the general population. 

Additional hallmarks of this disorder add to being extremely reluctant and beware of confiding in people in general, and finding some threatening meaning in things that do not usually exist. People who have a paranoid personality disorder can be very bipolar in terms of their moods and can deviate from being angry very quickly. 

There may be several factors as to why a patient may be acting extremely paranoid and mistrusting. It may be personal issues or environmental stress. Either way, for whichever reasons the patient may be feeling paranoid, it can cause many problems and communication issues with the relationships the patient shares with people.

Due to which, the patient may end up being alone, since being paranoid about everything can be a turn off in the eyes of many people. Paranoid personality disorder (PPD) is a severe issue when it comes to people’s personalities as paranoia is unhealthy for public and social interactions and gatherings. The patient may also be left behind in several aspects of their social life due to their disorder. 


Patients who have a paranoid personality disorder (PPD) are usually very vigilant, or their surroundings are generally on guard with whatever seems to be happening around them as they believe that someone or something may cause them harm, and this thinking is constant.  Some common symptoms of paranoid personality disorder are:

People with paranoid personality disorder (PPD) doubt commitments of other people at all times and questions their loyalty even when there seems to be no reason for it. They tend to end up believing that their loved ones or their love interest are using them or their bond is deceiving them.

  1. They are meticulous and usually reluctant when it comes to confiding in others about personal thoughts and experiences, and often, fear that the information that they share with other people will be eventually used against them in some harmful way.
  2. People who have a paranoid personality disorder (PPD) are usually very unforgiving nature and are quick to taunt and be mean at any chance they get since they get moody at all times. They hold grudges for long intervals, for no apparent reason.
  3. They are very hypersensitive and feel everything extremely deeply. They tend to overanalyze their feelings and think themselves into a bad mood. They take criticism very badly and aren’t always open to feedback about their work from others.
  4. Paranoid people try to look for hidden meanings in normal talks and remarks given by other people and can over-analyze casual conversations and looks.
  5. When someone talks about their character in a critique way, they are quick to get angry and retaliate in their defence quickly.
  6. They have suspicions that develop without any reason that their loved ones are being unfaithful.
  7. They are cold and distant in their relationships and often end up being possessive, controlling and jealous when it comes to sharing the attention of their loved one.
  8. Paranoid people are unable to see their role in problems they create and firmly believe that they are always right no matter how irrational they may sound in the arguments presented.
  9. They are a tough time trying to relax. Paranoid people are hostile, stubborn, and have a very argumentative behaviour even in standard situations.


The exact causes of paranoid personality disorder are unknown. Still, it most likely involves factors relating to psychology and the biological coordination of an individual and neurological problems they may have developed over time. PPD may also cause other psychological disorders like obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

PPD is extremely common in people who have schizophrenia, and its pathophysiology suggests a strong bridge with genetics involved in those two. A paranoid personality disorder may also be caused by rough experiences in one’s childhood years, during the age of 7-13, which may be a trigger for a paranoid personality in the individual.

Physical and emotional trauma over the years is also a prevalent and robust factor as people who are betrayed, or their loved ones have been unfaithful, develop a strongly paranoid personality for themselves and even do not confide in people anymore.

Personal and social interactions become very hard for people with paranoia and contribute to the development of paranoid personality disorder in people who have some minor cases of insanity. These causes of paranoid personality disorder are catalogued by DSM 5 and are strongly suggested to seek therapy if found so. (Vyas, 2016)


 A paranoid personality disorder is a well-recognized disorder by the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM 5) and is strongly suggested to be evaluated and treated. The physician or psychiatrist usually starts by performing a full evaluation with a medical history of the patient and asking about personal life.

Paranoid people typically show signs of earlier abuse, heartbreak, or any other historical trauma in their life that may have been the primary source for them to develop such a psychological disorder. If such circumstances arise and paranoia is evident in these evaluations, a full physical examination for the patient is done, despite there being no apparent test for the diagnosis of paranoia in patients.

A physical analysis is therefore used to rule out any other illnesses that the patient has, may have had, or carries, which may be an additional or root cause of paranoia. If the doctors are not able to find any psychological or physical reason, history or trauma in any form, or any other root causes, they may refer the patient to a psychologist or other health care professionals.

As a psychologist or mental health professional is a more suitable choice to treat psychological conditions and treat mental illnesses by therapy. They use precise assessments and interviews specially designed for patients of all types for evaluating a person with paranoia, or any other disorder that related to abnormal brain functioning and treats the individual is whatever possible ways therapy may be suited for the best (Lee, 2015).


Patients who have paranoid personality disorder suffer from delusions that there is nothing wrong with them, and they are seemingly just fine. They do not consider their paranoid personality as a mental disorder since the denial of rational things can often be a symptom if those reasons are not beneficial to them.

Treatment is sought by them in the form of psychotherapy and they have several sessions of counselling with a healthcare professional who has specifically designed assessments and interviews in which they ask about their childhood, any trauma they had in the past, different moods, discuss any possible situations they may have, and check the patients reflex actions to certain questions and scenarios.

These treatments most likely and majorly focus on improving their social interactions with people they work with and interact with on a weekly or daily basis as well as improving their communication and public speaking skills to boost up their self-esteem in life (Bateman,2015).

People seeking treatment for paranoid personality disorder (PPD) do not majorly receive medications for their illness as paranoia is not necessarily controlled by pills. However, sometimes doctors may recommend medications to manage the symptoms and effects by prescribing anti-anxiety, anti-depressant, and antipsychotic drugs so that some extreme symptoms can be controlled. 

If the patients are suffering from any associated psychological problem, then the psychiatrist also suggests medical checkups and performs exams on schedule basis. 

A paranoid personality disorder is different from other disorders like schizophrenia, delusional disorder, OCD, etc. and there seems to be no perceptual distortions in the person’s behaviour as well as non-bizarre delusional thinking which have no chances of being true at all.

Some individuals may also harbour suspicious thoughts about the health care professionals treating them, and that can cause problems and hurt the treatment of the disorder in a very bad way. They may move on to chronic paranoia if they are left untreated for long periods, but medications, in any case, are suggested to be prescribed for the shortest period possible.


The complications associated with paranoid personality disorder have a disrupted social life. Their thinking and behaviour get in the way of everything they do or may try to be a part of since their paranoid personality can be very off-putting to certain people on many platforms, whether it is a job or a social gathering.

Their thoughts interfere in the way of their ability to maintain healthy relationships as well as their ability to function in daily life. Their stubborn nature can sometimes land them in legal situations in which they may sue companies and people whom they think are trying to target them.

The prevalence of such attributes is an important factor that contributes to society’s views being extremely negative about the individual since they seem to always be in some kind of argumentative situation with other people.

Some Helpful Resources

  1. Paranoid Personality Disorder: The Ultimate Guide to Symptoms, Treatment, and Prevention (Personality Disorders)
  2. Cognitive Therapy of Personality Disorders
  3. The Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Workbook for Personality Disorders: A Step-by-Step Program
  4. Paranoid Personality Disorder – When Anxiety and Jealousy Hijack Your Life
  5. I Am Not Sick, I Don’t Need Help! How to Help Someone with Mental Illness Accept Treatment


A paranoid personality disorder is a chronic disorder, and the outlook of the people who have it may vary from person to person and usually last throughout a person’s life. Some people are either able to overcome their disorder or continue to function normally despite their thoughts and can get the simple joys of life like getting married and having children.

They are also able to communicate well and hold a job and excel in their fields while others are socially disabled and have no proper life when it comes to the basic human interactions needed to overcome anxiety, paranoia, and other compulsive disorders one might have. The people who resist treatment for paranoid personality disorder face poor outcomes.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q1. Does paranoid personality disorder get worse with age?

No, according to recent studies, like many personality disorders, paranoid personality disorder symptoms lessen with age.

Q2. Can paranoia go away?

There is no complete cure paranoid personality disorder, but therapy and coping with one’s symptoms can cause a person to lead a better life without any major occurrences of paranoia.

Q3. Who is a paranoid person?

A paranoid personality disorder is a condition in which people develop odd ways of thinking and suffer from delusions and suspicions about scenarios that don’t exist.

Q4. How do you know if you have paranoia?

If you are constantly finding yourself indulged in paranoid thoughts that include delusional scenarios and are quick to react to small things then there is a probability of you having paranoia.

Q5. Is being paranoid a sign of depression?

Not necessarily. Paranoia can develop in people that suffer from all kinds of mental illnesses, depression being one of them.

Q6. How do I deal with a paranoid person?

Don’t argue with them and let them get their way as arguing and indulging is a competitive conversation can only lead to a worse outcome.


  1. Paranoia Symptoms, Causes, and Treatments
  2. Paranoid Personality Disorder (PPD) Test & Self-Assessment
  3. What is paranoid personality disorder?
  4. Does paranoid personality disorder get worse with age?
  5. How is paranoid personality disorder treated?
  6. What drugs cause paranoia?

What is Resilience theory?

This blog aims to this blog aims to give you details on resilience theory. Resilience theory emphasizes that the intensity of the trauma does not matter as much as the way an individual deals with it matters. Resilience is the ability that helps an individual to bounce back when he faces distressing situations, unpleasant events for traumatic experiences. Resilience theory explains how resilience helps an individual to reflect back in difficult times. Let’s find out more about resilience and resilience theory in the next headings.

Construct of Resilience

The word resilience has been derived from the Latin word “resiliens” which means the pliant or elastic quality of a substance. According to Masten (2005) resilience is the process that is characterized by good consequences in spite of serious threats to the adaptation of development. According to psychiatric risk researcher, Rutter (1987), resilience is referred to as the positive tone of individual differences in the reaction of people towards stressful events and adversity. In view of Janas (2002), resilience is the ability of an individual to reflect back from hardships, frustration, and mischances.

Importance of Resilience 

Resilience holds great importance. It develops a tendency in individuals to reflect back and difficult times. It helps individuals maintain healthy, secure, positive, and effective relationships with others. It enhances the cognitive abilities of an individual and enables him to resolve issues effectively. Resilience help individuals cope with their distressing emotions and unpleasant situations in the most effective way. It increases the level of happiness of individuals and so forth.

Resilience Theory

According to Breda (2018: 1), resilience theory is the study of the concept of resilience, the meaning of ‘adversity’ and ‘outcomes’, spread, processes, and the implications of resilience.

The study of protective factors and risk factors has been merged through the research on resilience for more than 40 years. A number of studies have been combined to study why exposure to negative events like hardships and traumas not always produce negative outcomes in the case of young people. According to resilience theorists presence of one or more protective factors can decrease the influence of exposure to adversities. Protective factors and resilience are directly correlated. Individuals having a greater number of protective factors are found to have greater resiliency. Yet it is to be noted that resilience is not a stable construct. The level of resilience might vary from person to person and situation to situation write the benefits of resilience remain the same every time. 

There is a general agreement that excessive and intensive exposure to adversities, traumatic events, and insufficient schooling can threaten the life chances of young people in spite of their protective factors. It is important for young people to be exposed to positive and encouraging situations to help them develop and enhance their coping skills. 

Peer-based programs found to help increase protective factors and resiliency in young people who are at risk, by increasing access to positive role models, providing them a safe space, teaching them about help services, providing opportunities for learning and developing skills, enabling them to gain the support of peers by sharing experiences, and developing a sense of belongingness in their relationships.

Resilience Theory in Social Work

In the past several years’ resilience theory has become an important part of the field of social work, especially the one involving children. This is because of community relationships influence academic areas as well as the social work principle that individuals must accept their responsibility of contributing to the well-being of the other people (International Federation of Social Workers, 2019).

Resilience theory was applied in researches related to social work for a number of reasons. One of these is that developing factors that help build up resilience can help threatened clients by enhancing thier competency and promoting their health, aiding them in reflecting through adversities, exploring stressors, and motivating them to confront them, grow and survive (Greene et al., 2004).

In the case of social workers, the issues in social work include exploring protective factors and utilizing them to enhance the effectiveness of the intervention, applying practical solutions to enhance capacity as well as strength of individual clients,  societies and communities, and understanding the role of social work policy and services in developing or obstructing well-being, social and economic injustice.

Recommended Books

The following are some of the best books on resilience theory. These books are a helpful source for increasing knowledge about resilience theory. All of the books are easily accessible on Amazon Store. Click the book you wish to read and you will be redirected to the page from where you can access it.

What is resilience theory in social work?

In social work, resilience theory emphasizes that every individual has an ability to some extent to recover from a trauma or a distressing situation. This strength is due to resilience which is referred to as the ability to bounce back after going through difficult times or tragedies. 

Who developed the resilience theory?

Norman Garmezy is known to develop resilience theory. He did a lot of researches on resilience and on the basis of those researches, he concluded that protective factors at individual levels, family levels and, external to family levels affect the resilience of an individual.

What are the 7 C’s of resilience?

The 7 C’s of resilience include control, competence, coping, confidence, connection, character, and contribution.

What is a resilience framework?

Resiliency framework is referred to as building on current plans, policies, and investments by examining existing conditions in the community. This framework helps analyze how the decrease of vulnerability to shocks and stresses can affect an individual’s daily life activities, long-term planning, and goals. 

What are the 5 skills of resilience?

The 5 skills of resilience include self-awareness, attention letting go physically, letting go mentally, accessing, and sustaining positive emotion.

How do we develop resilience?

Resilience can be developed in a number of ways. Some ways to develop resilience include getting enough sleep, following a healthy diet, practicing self-awareness, practicing cognitive restructuring, learning from mistakes and failures rather than feeling sad for them, choosing your response, and maintaining your perspective.

This blog aimed to provide you a detailed review of resilience theory. We hope this blog would be a source of information for you and you would have discovered how important resilience is for promoting our well-being and helping us pass through adversities. Your reviews about the blog are highly welcomed. If you have any queries or questions regarding this blog, let us know through your comments in the comments section. We will be glad to assist you.


Resilience Theory: What Research Articles in Psychology Teach Us (+ PDF) by Catherine Moore (2020)

Resilience Skills, Factors and strategies of the Resilient Person by Leslie Riopel

Conceptual Frameworks and Research Models on Resilience in Leadership Janet Ledesma (2014)

Resilience theory – My-Peer Toolkit